Ascherfeld, Clara (10-31-1875 to 2-2-1963)

Ms. Ascherfeld was born in Havre de Grace Maryland and is of German ancestry. She received her early music training from her mother. She later studied in Europe under various teachers. She studied at the Peabody Conservatory. She was among the first to be appointed to the piano faculty, as a holder of a Peabody scholarship. She was piano soloist with the Peabody Orchestra. She taught accompanying and ensemble at the Peabody Conservatory and appeared as the official accompanist at the well know Friday afternoon recitals.

It was her interest in brining fine music to the people at large that speaks of her contributions to the music life in her era. She traveled through Maryland as a member of the Peabody Concert Company and played in many towns which, at the time, scarcely knew music performances. Her lifetime devotion was to the music of Bach (she had lived in Lübeck several years). The Bach name appeared on practically all of her programs.

Ms. Ascherfeld is buried at Angel Hill Cemetery in Harford County.

Bahr, Florence Elizabeth Riefle (2-2-1909 to 1-12-1998)

Florence, of German descent, was born in Baltimore City to parents James Henry Riefle and Florence Shafer. She was the great granddaughter of Henry Ferdinand Riefle, granddaughter of both Henry Francis Riefle and Jacob Conrad Shafer (see Butchers), and the niece of Norman T.A. Munder, a well-known Baltimore printer. Florence grew up in the Liberty Road/Park Heights neighborhood, and in her teenage years, the family moved to Homeland. She was the first daughter of six siblings, and though raised in a musically talented family, was encouraged to exercise her visually artistic eye at a youthful age.

Florence graduated from Forest Park High School in 1927 and attended Dickinson College for two years before switching to the Maryland Institute School of Mechanical Arts—now Maryland Institute College of Art ("MICA"). She went to both the Day and Night Schools there in 1930, graduating with a diploma in Costume Design, and became a post-grad with honors in 1931 with a diploma in Fine Arts, winning the James Young Memorial Prize and a tour of Europe. While at the Institute, she met another student (who was also her painting teacher), Leonard Bahr (see biography below), to whom she married in 1934. During the "Depression Era" she worked for the Works Progress Administration, painting (among other commissions) a mural for the Harriet Lane Home for Children.

During WWII, the family lived in Florida -- both in [Hollywood and Jacksonville] where Leonard was stationed. Returning to Maryland, and by June 1947 with three children, they moved from their home on Reisterstown Road in Baltimore City to "Edgewood Cottage," an historic house on Old Lawyers Hill Road in Elkridge, (Howard County) Maryland. By 1966, they had built a new house and studios on the same property.

Florence's ideas were expansive and her interests broad. She used pencil, charcoal, watercolor, pastel, oil, ink, woodcut, etching, lithography and assemblage, and her work reflected her daily life as well as life's larger challenges. From commissions of murals, children's portraits and book illustrations during the 1940s, a wind of change for her came by the mid-1950s. With civil rights and nuclear test issues arising, and basing her faith in Jesus Christ, she re-examined her values and priorities and used her talents to champion human rights, environmental issues, underprivileged children, anti-nuclear testing and anti-war causes.

Florence was bold by nature and not afraid to confront issues, though sensitive to the overwhelming negative projects she worked to change. She used her sketchbooks to record political marches and demonstrations, strikes, trials, and speeches, and eventually donated over 340 of those sketchbooks to the Maryland State Archives. She wrote numerous letters to all levels of government, challenging them to rethink their choices.

Florence's art has been exhibited widely and published in magazines, newspapers, and in book illustrations, and is owned by private and public collections in Germany, Japan and throughout the United States.

In 1999, she was post-humously awarded "Woman of the Year" by the State of Maryland in their Women's Hall of Fame, and in 2002, her biography was included in the book Women of Achievement in Maryland History.

Bahr, Leonard Marion (5-12-1905 to 7-25-1990)

Leonard, was born at 743 Columbia Avenue (now Washington Boulevard in Pigtown, Baltimore), the home of his aunt Mary Fox Meyer. He was the second son of Leonard Bahr and Elizabeth Caroline Fox Bahr, and the younger brother to Maurice John Bahr. He was the grandson of Frederick John Bahr and Margaret Kessler Bahr. Leonard was imaginative and creative. His faith helped him. "I made a small cross out of sticks and made my own little church in the woods. My mother had many operations, and I feared she might die. The little church was my place of worship."

By age 12, he worked for his grandmother, Christina, in her florist business, and at age 13, wired garlic leaves to toothpicks for floral designs.

As an older teen, aged 15, he took a course at the YMCA to be a ship radio operator and a correspondence course through the Federal School of Commercial Design. From ages 16 to 17, he became an apprentice at the Lord Baltimore Press, running errands, mixing glue, and grinding litho stones, for $5.50 a week. They sent him to the Maryland Institute of Mechanical Arts Evening School to learn charcoal drawing, from 7 to 9:30 three nights a week. At the conclusion of the course, he quit the job.

In his 18th year for a year, Leonard worked as a photo retoucher at the Lynchburg Engraving Co., his uncle's company in Lynchburg, Va., and left home for the first time. Even though he saved some money, upon coming home he got odd jobs in commercial work, grocery stores, and lawn care.

During this time, Leonard continued at the Md. Institute for 5 years. Still attending night school, he enrolled in a summer school portrait painting course for $20. His talent won him a one-year day school scholarship. He was put in a three year class, which he finished in two years. In his 4th year at the Institute, they renewed the scholarship and he won the Peabody Prize for life drawing ($50 and a diploma). Leonard was eligible to win a $600 European Traveling Scholarship, except he needed an additional $200 for expenses. He then got a commission to paint a woman Civil War poetess for the Douglas High School which paid $200; and by juried faculty, he won the Scholarship.

At the Institute, his 5th year as a post-graduate was free and he assisted teaching cast drawing. Then he was asked to substitute teach, at the same time starting a career in portrait painting.

In 1934, he was chosen as an artist to be in Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Public Works of Art program.

After an initial four-year verbal engagement in 1931, at St. Mark's Methodist Church with Dr. Depp as minister, he married Florence (Riefle) (1909-1998) (see biography above) on May 17th, 1934. She too was an artist studying at the Maryland Institute of Art. The Bahrs lived first in a 2nd floor studio apartment on 4127 Park Heights Ave., where Leonard got a third floor room as a studio. They later moved to 4228 Reisterstown Road, where Leonard's studio occupied the basement, and where

As well as Leonard completing the murals, he and Florence had their own first joint painting exhibition in 1936. Among signatures in the exhibition guest book of those attending were Dick Powell and Mae West, visiting Baltimore from Hollywood. Powell's written remark was that he thought "the art was very good."

By 1943, they were already the parents of two children. At that time, Leonard graduated from the OTS at Ohio State and became a commissioned naval officer. By 1945, he was already a training officer (plane and ship recognition and gunnery), a Division Officer, an Athletic Officer, Art Editor, and in Training Aids. He also was trained in gunnery in Norfolk, VA, where he made high marks. Leonard attained rank of Lieutenant Commander. He was stationed first in Hollywood and then the Navigational School in Yellow Water, Jacksonville, FL. While there, he bought a house for his family. Discharged in 1946, he and his family returned to Baltimore and Leonard continued teaching at the Institute, concentrating on his career as an artist, as well as continuing as an Instructor in Training in the Naval Reserve.

In 1947 they had a third child, and in June of that year, moved from Baltimore City to an historic home in Elkridge. Leonard retired from the Naval Reserve in 1953.

He was also an instructor at the Metropolitan School of Art in the early 1950's, as well as for the Woman's Club of Roland Park, and the Glen Burnie Branch of the Maryland Institute of Art. At the same time, he was also a popular professor of painting at the Maryland Institute for over 54 years. He received the award "Outstanding Educator of America" in 1972, and was honored for his service at his later retirement from MICA. In addition to affectionate praise and a standing ovation, he received the Institute's Medal of Honor and an invitation to present his retrospective at the college's gallery.

But the honors were not his first. The ballots from his students, prizes from his exhibitions, and letters from his commissions were all important to him. Despite the politics, trendiness, trivialities and commercialism of the art market, Leonard gained a well-established reputation for fine arts painting in Maryland and beyond. He never solicited commissions and always painted from life (unless the person had died). His commissions included those with money and power, as well as those who struggled to pay. Leonard's standard was to portray the essence of his models, the beauty of their characters, and didn't compromise by painting "prettiness" for its own sake or to appease his customers.

And because of Leonard's faith in Jesus Christ, his heart's desire was to continue to paint for a universal "church," which he accomplished mostly through portraits of various clerics, bishops and pastors. Being sensitive, he also experienced certain dreams and visions of Jesus Christ, whom he would draw or paint.

He demonstrated portraiture at numerous exhibitions, including twice at the Baltimore Museum of Art, the Peale Museum, the Maryland Artists Cooperative, and the Rolling Road Art League, to just name two. He also held painting workshops for the Board of Education, the Artists Equity, the College of Notre Dame, and the Towson YMCA to name a few.

Through the years, Leonard's art has been exhibited in group and one-man exhibitions at the Baltimore Museum of Art (including regional and traveling exhibitions), the Washington Museum of Modern Art, the Corcoran Gallery (1st award), and the National Gallery of Art, the Cumberland Valley Museum, the Peale Museum, the Salt Lake City Utah Museum, the University of Arizona, the Academy of the Arts - Easton (1st award), the Fells Point Art Gallery, and many Maryland Institute Faculty shows (7 first awards).

His portraits hang in private and public buildings, including the University of Arizona Mus. of Art, the Carlisle University, the Johns Hopkins Hospital, City College, Peabody Institute, Park School, the Annapolis State House, the Md. Archdiocese, Union Memorial Hospital, Christ Lutheran Church, Our Saviors Evangelical Lutheran Church, and the Maryland Institute of Art.

Leonard was a member of the Maryland Mountain Club and canoed in the creeks of the Magothy and Severn Rivers. He also loved sailing and bicycle riding. Of his first trip to Europe, he remarked, "I enjoyed the ocean, saw whales close up and all kinds of sea life, especially in the Gulf Stream." His second trip was to Germany with Florence in the 1970's, aboard the Queen Mary. He also had a good sense of humor and loved to laugh over quips, witticisms and comics. As an American, he made a comical stir in the small German villages by wearing jeans, which German men don't do apparently.

Photos of him painting landscapes are located at the Md. Historical Society, and a film biography called "A Painter's Portrait" was taped by the Howard County Historical Society, which was an interview and his demonstration of painting a still life evolving on film in progressive stills, and his memories and his painting regarding Lansdowne, Maryland on YouTube at " Furthermore, a park bench has been placed, with a plaque dedicated to his memory, in Centennial Park, Howard Co.

Mr. Bahr is buried at Meadowridge Cemetery in Howard County, Maryland.

Berge, Edward (1876 to 1924)

Edward Henry Berge was born in Baltimore in 1876. He was the son of 1st generation German immigrants, Edward’s father Henry was a trained stonecutter and an architect. His father built the house they lived in, which was situated near the Baltimore Cemetery gatehouse. Edward enrolled in the Rinehart School of Sculpture in 1899. His classmates were J. Maxwell Miller and Hans Schuler. After graduation, he traveled to France and studied under Auguste Rodin. He is known for his bronze monumental works and figures. He was a member of the National Sculpture Society and the National Arts Club. He taught at the Maryland Institute of Art, which was originally the Rinehart School.

He created numerous monuments throughout the city and generally works in a realist style. He is, however, most well known for his carefree and playful garden figures such as the 'Wildflower Series'

Berge mainly worked in marble and bronze and completed many monuments, portrait busts and relief sculptures, many of which are on display outdoors or in public buildings in and around Baltimore City.

  • Armistead at Fort McHenry

  • Chapin A. Harris, Wyman Parkway and 31st Street

  • Wildflower, Homeland Garden-Springlake Way

  • Watson, Mt. Royal Terrace at North Ave.

  • Berge Family Plot-Lorraine Park Cemetery

  • Tattersall Monument-Lorraine Park Cemetery

  • Sea Urchin-JHU/Mt. Vernon (1924). The original was moved to JHU in 1961 and the Urchin at Mt. Vernon was replaced with a larger model. Edward's son, Henry made the reproduction.

  • Belair WWI Memorial-1921

  • On the Trail-Clifton Park

Edward died of a heart attack in 1924. He is buried in Lorraine Park Cemetery. His sons Henry and Stephens were also professional artist and are buried in Lorraine Park.

Works of Edward Berge

He is known for his fountains. Wildflowers is a series of fountains using different wildflowers in the design.

Berger, Henry-( ) Organ builder

Henry Berger arrived in Baltimore from Prussia in 1849. He arrived with his wife Anna, his brother George, and several German organ workers. His first shop was established on East Baltimore Street (later at 11 S. Frederick Street). His first job was to rebuild and enlarge the organ used by Trinity German Lutheran Church, located at Trinity and High Street. By 1850 he was involved in building several organs.

Berger and his workers were highly skilled. Henry Berger was an organist and would often be the first recitalist for his installations.

Henry Berger only remained in Baltimore for a short period (about 5 years) and moved his family to Jefferson, PA. It is estimated that he employed 20+ persons at his shop on Frederick Street.

He and his wife had six children. All of his children were talented and often toured around the country as a touring bell choir. All of the children were musically inclined and played a musical instrument. They all remained active in show business.

Click here for article contained in, ‘The Organ Historical Society, Inc., Hilbus Chapter’, September 2014. This article includes a detailed biography as well as a listing of organs produced by Henry Berger.

Beranger, Clara (born Strouse) (1-14-1886 to 9-10-1956)

Born in Baltimore, daughter of Benjamin (11-1857) and Fannie (Kahn) (2-1856) Strouse. Her father, a clothier, emigrated to the US in 1860 from Germany.Clara attended Gourcher College and graduated with a BA in 1907. She went into journalism and wrote for various magazines. She married Albert Berwanger, but changed her name to Beranger when she began to write and study for the stage, which became her passion.

She wrote screenplays using the stage name Charles S. Beranger. She worked first for Edison, Vitagraph and Kalem. She was also a staff writer for Fox Corporation. She became a well-known screenwriter for the silent movie era. One of her best works was a screen adaptation of a Tale of Two Cities. She moved with her daughter, Frances, to Hollywood in 1921. Here she signed with Cecil B. Demille. She wrote or contributed to more than 24 DeMille productions, including the still classic, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde with John Barrymore.

She later married William DeMille. She retired from pictures in 1934 and continued to write for magazines. She was an original faculty member of USC School of Cinematic Arts. Also among the original faculty were Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford and director D.W. Griffith and Darryl Zanuck.

She died of a heart attack in 1956.

Cassidy, Eva (2-2-1963 to 11-2-1996)

Eva Cassidy was born in Bowie, MD., the daughter of Hugh and Barbara. Her father was of Irish/Scottish descent and her mother was German born. She began singing professionally at the age of eleven in the Washington area in a band called ‘Easy Street’. While a student at Bowie High School, she sang with a local band called Stonehenge. She also spent the summers of 1983 playing guitar and singing at the theme park, ‘Wild World’. She explored other artistic expressions including painting, sculpting and jewelry design.

Al Dale became her manager and in 1986 she sang back-up for several acts. In 1990, the ‘Eva Cassidy’ band was born. Her signature song was ‘Over the Rainbow’. In 1993 she was honored by the Washington Area Music Association with a Wammie award for the Vocalist Jazz/Traditional category. She signed a deal with ‘Blue Note’ label. In January 1996, the material for Live at Blues Alley was recorded over a two-day period at Blues Alley in Washington DC. The Washington Post commented that ‘she could sing anything-folk, blues, pop, jazz, R&B, gospel-and make it sound like it was the only music that mattered. Her last album ‘Eva by Heart’ was released posthumously in 1997. She died after a battle with melanoma. She was inducted into the Washington Area Music Association’s Hall of Fame.

Cone Sisters

Cone, Etta (11-30-1871 to 8-31-1949)

Cone, Claribel (11-4-1864 to 9-20-1929)

Although not artists themselves, the Cone sisters have left Baltimore and the world a most valuable collection of art. The Cone sisters are the daughters of Herman and Helen Cone (see Business section) and sisters to ten other siblings. Both sisters lived in the Bolton Hill Section of Baltimore on Eutaw Street, where until their deaths also housed their large art collection. They were both graduates of Western Female High School. Claribel attended Women's Medical College of Baltimore and graduated in 1890, to become a physician and pathologist. . She never practiced clinical medicine. Etta was a pianist and managed the family household. They traveled extensively in Europe. Neither of the sisters married.

From the Sunpaper 150th Anniversary book, 1987

In 1901, Dr. Claribel Cone, a pathologist who had graduated from the Women’s Medical College in Baltimore and studied at Johns Hopkins, and her sister Etta took their first trip to Europe. The daughters of a textile merchant with considerable money to spend, they were introduced by their friend Gertrude Stein to Matisse, Picasso and other young artists of the day and began collecting their works. Eventually, they amassed one of the largest Matisse collections in the world, including 42 paintings, in addition to the works of many other 19th century and 20th century artists including Van Gogh, Picasso and Cezanne.

When Claribel died in 1929 she left her sister her part of the collection, with the wish that it remain in Baltimore only if the interest in modern art increased in the city. By the time Etta died 20 years later, she had decided that it had, for she left the entire collection to the Baltimore Museum of Art, along with $400,000 to build a wing for it. The result is the Cone Wing, the principal jewel in the Baltimore Museum's crown and one of Baltimore’s greatest art treasures.

The Cone sisters were friends of many artists and literary giants including Gertrude Stein, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse and Alice B. Toklas. Etta began purchasing art in 1898 with money provided to her to decorate the family home. She began with paintings from Theodore Robinson. While on vacation in 1905 they were visiting the Steins in Paris and were introduced to Picasso and Matisse. They purchased from struggling artists in Europe as well as here in Maryland, those students from the Maryland Institute College of Art. They purchased, for the most part low, and amassed a collection that can hardly be compared.

Some of the collection, which is now housed at the Baltimore Museum of Art are works of Matisse (Blue Nude, the Pink Nude, Woman in a Turban, Left Knee bent, Ornamental Background and Checkboard, Seated Odalisuqe); Cèzanne (Mont Sainte-Victoire Seen From the Bibemus Quarry); Paul Gauguin (Vahine no te vi (Woman of the Mango); Picasso (Mother and Child)

Matisse was one of their favorites and they collected throughout his career oil paintings, scultures, prints, illustrations drawings and the copper plates used from his first illustrated book, Poésies de Stéphane Mallarmé. Their more than 500 works in their collection is the largest of his work in the world.

A portion of the Cone art collection resides at the Weatherspoon Art Museum at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, where the Cone Mills were located. Their older brother, Moses, started these mills and added immensely to the family wealth.

The Cone Art Collection consists of more than 3,000 works of art. The collection is estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars

Etta and Claribel are buried at Druid Ridge Cemetery in an area called Hickory Knoll. The mausoleum is marked ‘Cone’. It was designed by Architect James O. Olney and is made of Tennessee marble and columns of Vermont granite. Their names and birth and death dates are on their vaults.

Dieterich, Louis P. D (George) (1841 to 11-15-1922)

Mr. Dieterich was born in Lich, Germany. He was a portrait artist and was also a musician and endowed with a wonderfully rich voice. For over fifty years he was an active member of the Harmonie Singing Society. He painted several historical portraits which have hung or still hang in the State House. In the Senate building one can find the portrait of Senator Arthur Pue Gorman and in the House chambers, Mr. Dieterich painted the portrait of Senator Isador Raynor and that of Senate President Spencer Jones. In the Governor’s private office, the Dieterich portraits include those of Thomas George Pratt, William Thomas Hamilton and Frank Brown.

Erickson, Janet Doub (1924 to 9-3-2021 )Author, and Graphic Artist

Born Janet Ann Doub she is an American graphic artist and writer who popularized linoleum-block and woodblock printing in the post-World War II period, both through her art and through her writings. Born to a pioneering Western Maryland farming family (Doub)in Hagerstown, Maryland in 1924, she spent her early years in Boonsboro, Maryland, where her father’s ancestors had settled in the eighteenth century and subsequently farmed continuously. She moved to New England in the nineteen thirties and attended the Massachusetts College of Art, graduating in the nineteen forties, and founded with partner Paul Coombs “Blockhouse of Boston” soon thereafter, achieving commercial success with her innovative approaches to block-printing. After marrying author Evarts Erickson in the 1950s she moved to Mexico for several years with a fellowship from The Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation. In Guadalajara and then Oaxaca she studied Mexican printmaking techniques and had several children, subsequently returning to a professorship in the United States.

She was nicknamed “Jumping Janet” for her practice of jumping on her linoleum and wood blocks to make the ink stick deeper into the textiles she was printing. She was also the subject of profiles in the art magazines Craft Horizons and American Artist , and won a first prize in textile design from the American Craftsmen's Council in 1954. In 1961 Erickson wrote Blockprinting on Textiles. A 1966 book she co-wrote with Adelaide Sproul, Printmaking Without A Press popularized both traditional and her own more innovative linoleum and wood-cut printing techniques at a time when block printing was on the verge of extinction in the United States. Fortuitously timed with a renaissance in interest in traditional crafts during the sixties, the book further spurred interest in Janet Doub Erickson's art. In 1989 she published her early line drawings in the retrospective book Drawings of Old Boston Houses. Her prints, drawings, and paintings have been purchased for the permanent collections of the Wadsworth Atheneum, the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, and the Saudi Arabian Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu.

In the nineteen sixties she moved to California, where she lived for more than a decade prior to moving to Croatia (then-Yugoslavia), then Venice, Italy, and finally to the Middle East, before returning to California. In 2001 she moved to her long-time summer residence on Cape Cod, where she currently resides, and did historical research on New England vernacular housing. Now retired as a printmaker, in recent years she has written for a variety of textile and architectural magazines, and recently retired from her position on the Wellfleet, Massachusetts, Historical Commission.

Additional information was provided by Ms. Erickson's son Andrew, who currently lives in Germany. Click here to read a most informative obituary.

Finger, Otto (1904 to 9-11-1965)

Mr. Finger was a long standing member of the Society for the History of Germans in Maryland. He was a graduate of the Peabody Conservatory of Music and after additional music studies in Germany, returned to Baltimore and established a studio for teaching voice. He remained a music teacher for twenty years. He often sang at the First Presbyterian Church and the Zion LutheranChurch. He was co-owner with sculptor Hans Schuler of the Schuler-Thomas Florists on Saratoga Street, which was founded in 1892 by Hans Schuler. He is buried at Druid Ridge Cemetery.

Fuchs, Professor Otto (10-6-1839 to 3-13-1906)

He was born in Saltzwedel, in the province of Saxony, Prussia and came to the US in 1851. Professor Fuchs came to the U.S. at the age of twelve. He received his early education in Germany. He arrived in New York and received his professional education there. He studied civil engineering and was a teacher at the Cooper Institute in New York and also a draftsman for the U.S. Coast Survey. He accepted a position as professor of drawing at the Naval Academy in Annapolis, where he stayed for two years. As a draughtsman and later as Director of the Bureau of Design for Monitors, he may have helped win the naval battles of the Civil War. He then went to the State Normal Art School in Boston as a director. He then accepted the appointment as principal from the Maryland Institute, which at the time had 250 students. He spent twenty two years in that position (1883 to 1906). One of his students was Hans Schuler (see profile, this page). He designed the interior studios of the new building after the old building was destroyed by the Great Baltimore Fire in 1904. Unfortunately, Professor Fuchs did not live to see the completed building, which was 1908. He was a member of the Society for the History of Germans in Maryland, being their vice president at the time of his death. He was a member of the Board of Managers of the Germania Society of Maryland; a member of the General Orphan Society of Baltimore and was president of the German Technical Society of Baltimore. He was a Past master of Fidelity Lodge of Masons. He was also a member of the Harmonic Musical Society.

The Maryland General Assembly paid homage to Professor Fuchs during their 1906 session by a Joint Resolution: SECTION 1. Be it resolved by the General Assembly of Maryland, That its members have heard with the keenest sensibility the distressing intelligence that the useful and honored life of Professor Otto Fuchs, of the Maryland Institute Schools of Art and Design, has come to an end. Gifted beyond the ordinary measure of human endowments, irreproachable in point of character, placed by his talents and attainments in a situation that enabled him to leave a deep impress upon the minds and energies of many pupils whose careers, creditable both to themselves and the State, have borne indisputable testimony to the worth of such a preceptor, it is meet that this action of the General Assembly of Maryland should enduringly attest the high position that he won in the confidence and gratitude of the community whose higher welfare he did so much to promote.

Professor Fuchs married Ann Sophia (Tuck-daughter of Judge William H. Tuck) and is buried at St. Anne's in Annapolis.

Gontrum, John F. (2-16-1857 to 12-27-1909)-Writer

Mr. Gontrum was a lawyer and poet, born and died in Baltimore County. Both his father and mother (John and Caroline -Hesse Darmstadt and Wurttemburg), came to America from Germany with their parents at an early age.

As a boy, he attended the German- Lutheran Parochial School, taught by Edward F. Leyh, the well-known German-American poet. Later, he attended Knapp's German-English School, BethelAcademy in Virginia, and St. John's College at Annapolis. Upon his graduation from the latter institution in 1878, he took up the study of law and was admitted to its practice in 1880.

Of the poems which he contributed to various periodicals from time to time throughout his life, the best known are Fort McHenry, Poe, and the Old Bridle Path. These have been included in a number of anthologies of verse. Fort McHenry, by its exalted tone of patriotism, was instrumental in molding the sentiment that finally brought about the conversion of the old fortress into a national shrine. The poem, Poe, was written in 1909, a few months before the author's death, in indignation at the judges' action in refusing to admit Edgar Allan Poe to the so-called Hall of Fame. Its inspired beauty and power of imagination make it a really important addition to American literature. The Old Bridle Path is a pastoral of great charm. The picture which it portrays of the woods and fields of the author's youth is pervaded by a tone of regret and mild melancholy. Poems, by John F. Gontrum, were published in 1910.

Hahn, Hiliary () concert violinist

Hahn began playing the violin one month before her fourth birthday in the Suzuki Program of Baltimore's Peabody Conservatory. She participated in a Suzuki class for a year. Between 1984 and 1989 Hahn studied in Baltimore under Klara Berkovich. In 1990, at ten, Hahn was admitted to the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia where she became a student of Jascha Brodsky. Hahn studied with Brodsky for seven years and learned the études of Kreutzer, Ševcík, Gaviniès, Rode, and the Paganini Caprices. She learned twenty-eight violin concertos, recital programs, and several other short pieces.

In 1991, Hahn made her major orchestral debut with the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra. Soon thereafter, Hahn debuted with the Philadelphia Orchestra, Cleveland Orchestra, Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra, and the New York Philharmonic. In 1995 Hahn made her international debut in Germany with a performance of the Beethoven Concerto for Violin and Orchestra in D Major with Lorin Maazel and the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. The concert was broadcast on radio and television in Europe. A year later, Hahn debuted at Carnegie Hall in New York as a soloist with the Philadelphia Orchestra.

By sixteen, Hahn had completed the Curtis Institute's university requirements, but elected to remain for several years to pursue elective courses, until her graduation in May 1999 with a Bachelor of Music degree. During this time she coached violin with Jaime Laredo, and studied chamber music with Felix Galimir and Gary Graffman. In an interview with PBS in December 2001, Hahn stated that of all the musical disciplines, she is most interested in musical performance.

Hahn has played with orchestras such as the London Symphony Orchestra, New York Philharmonic, Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra, and the Singapore Symphony Orchestra. She debuted with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in March 2007, and played in Vatican City as part of the celebrations for Pope Benedict XVI together with the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra and conductor Gustavo Dudamel, also in 2007.

She began performing and touring in a crossover duo with singer-songwriter Josh Ritter in 2007 and with singer-songwriter Tom Brosseau in 2005. According to Hahn: "Other musicians cross genres all the time. For me it's not crossover — I just enter their world. It frees you up to think in a different way from what you've been trained to do."

She speaks English, French and German.

Heyen, J.T. (3-2-1810 to 12-22-1875)

Heyen was a poet and linguist and was a liberal contributor to many of the German and English literary journals in the U.S. He was born in Jever, Oldenburg, Germany and came to the U.S. around 1831. He engaged in a few mercantile pursuits, which he left for his true love, literature. For many years, he filled a responsible position in the Baltimore post-office and used his leisure time to translate his favorite German, French, Spanish and Italian poets. His own poems evidenced his command of the English language, which he spoke with astonishing fluency.

Among his best efforts was the poem entitled ‘The Suicide,’ published in the Baltimorean several years after his death. After leaving the post-office, he was appointed by his brother-in-law, Frederick Raine (see profile), a position on the editorial staff of the Correspondent, where he remained until his death.

Hildebrandt, Samuel (1772-1863)-Musical Instrument Makers

Hildebrandt, Charles (1827 to 1896)

Hildebrandt, Albert (9-25-1869 to 11-17-1932)

C.H. Hildebrandt & Son were violin makers and was one of the oldest musical houses in Baltimore city. It was founded by Samuel Wilhelm Hildebrandt in 1838. Samuel was from Buchstadt, Saxony and was a skilled instrument maker with old school talent. He made all of his lathes and tools. He made brass instruments. Samuel was married to Sabine (1794 to 1880). Their son Charles Herman, also born in Saxony around 1827, entered the business around 1855. Charles made clarinets and flutes. As time progressed, the son added the making of violins, which became their claim to fame. After Samuel’s death, Charles changed the name of the firm to C.H. Hildebrandt & Son. Charles died in 1896.

His son, Albert became the proprietor after the death of his father. The sign over the door since Albert became proprietor read, ‘Hildebrandt, Violins Established 1838. The company was located at 19 North Liberty Street for 65 years. It moved to 321 North Howard Street. There were also shops at 19 West Saratoga Street, 520 North Charles Street and 417 and 619 St. Paul Street.

Albert was also an exceptional cellist. He married Anna (Whitelock). Together they had a daughter, Carolyn Elizabeth.

Albert passed away in 1932 from heart disease. He died at his home on Fern Park Avenue. Albert Hildebrandt was buried from Strawbridge Methodist Episcopal Church. His pallbearers were members of the Saturday Night Club. In fact, it was Mr. Hildebrandt with a small group of music lovers that established the Saturday Night Club in 1908.

The business received many awards including two from the Maryland Institute for proficiency in making specific types of instruments. They also had many famous customers. One of the family’s prized possessions is the old ‘cello’, one of the few made by Antonius Stradivarius. It is believed to be the only one in the United States. It was made in 1717 and the history traced. It appears Samuel Hildebrandt purchased the instrument in 1851 from an Italian count that was having financial difficulty.

Another story deals with a violin that was purchased by Albert following a concert in Charlottesville. A man showed Hildebrandt what looked to be an Amati and explained that it had been bequeathed to his father, a slave, by his master, Thomas Jefferson. Hildebrandt bought it on the spot for a handsome sum. Although there was room for doubt—that the violin was Jefferson’s own, Hildebrandt remained convinced that it was.

Source: The Sunpaper, ‘More About Old Baltimore Business Houses’, November 1, 1908.; The Sunpaper, Last Line of Violin Makers, Albert Hildebrandt is Dead, November 18, 1932; The Sunpaper, 42 Baltimore Firms Now in Century Class, April 24, 1938.

Samuel is buried at Western Cemetery.

Charles is buried-unknown

Albert is buried at Rock Run Cemetery in Havre de Grace

Albert Hildebrand

Mary Hildebrand

Past President Ladies Aid Society - 1878

Zion Church

Kemmelmeyer, Frederick (c. 1733-1816)-Painter

A German-born artist in Baltimore who did portraits, miniatures, and historical subjects. His painting of George Washington reviewing the army at Fort Cumberland is a fine example of early American naive painting. Frederick Kemmelmayer worked in Baltimore as a sign painter and miniaturist until 1803 and later moved to Western Maryland working from Chambersburg to Hagerstown and into the Upper Shenandoah region. The artist is known for his paintings of George Washingon reviewing the Whiskey Rebellion riots of 1794. He completed various portraits using pastels between the years 1805 and 1816.

Keyser, Ephraim (10-6-1850 to 1937)

E. Keyser was born in Baltimore. He was the son of Moses and Elizabeth Keyser, both born in Germany (according to the 1880 Federal Census). He was educated at the City College of Baltimore and studied art in the Maryland Academy of Arts in 1871-72. He went to Munich in 1872 and studied under Widmann in the Academy of Fine Arts, where he won a silver medal for a bronze statue, 'The Page'. He remained there until 1876, when he moved to Berlin, and entered the studio of Albert Wolff, under whose tuition he modeled a figure of 'Psyche' (Cincinnati Art Museum), for which he gained the Michael Beer prize, enabling him to spend a year in Italy.

In 1880 he settled in Rome, Italy, where he maintained a studio for six years and where he received a prize for the statue of 'Psyche'. In 1887 he returned to the United States, and lived in New York City until 1893. He then resided in Baltimore, where he became an instructor in modeling at the School of Fine Arts. He lived with his sister Fannie and her husband David Bachrach. His studio was located at the David Bachrach House, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. The house is located at 308 Overhill Road in Baltimore.

Works: the statue of Major General Baron DeKalb, erected by the government at Annapolis, Maryland (1883); the design for the tomb of Chester A. Arthur, President of the United States, at Albany, NY; and various busts- President Grover Cleveland, Cardinal Gibbons, Sidney Lanier, General Thomas Shryock, Professor M. Newell, Dr. Daniel Gilman and Henry Harland. He also worked on cemetery statues and memorials and many are contained in the Baltimore Hebrew Cemetery. His other works include 'The Falcon', 'The Old Story', 'Titania' and 'A Duet'.

Works of Keyser

Meineke, Christoph (Charles) (1782 to 1850)

Charles was born in Germany, son of Karl Meineke, organist in Oldenberg. He came to the United States in 1820 at the age of 18 and settled in Baltimore. Meineke was the organist for St. Paul's Church in Baltimore and kept that position from 1820 for the rest of his life. One of his publications, 'A New Instruction for Piano Forte (1823)' is still a gudeline today. He was a prolific composer and is credited with the music for an "Evening Prayer" to be used at St. Paul Episcopal Church. The tune was published in his collection of psalm and hymn tunes and service music for St. Paul's congregation, Music for the Church (1844). He wrote the tune for the Glory be to the Father as well.

Source: Anthology of Early American Keyboard Music, 1787 to 1830, Part1.

Mencken, August (2-18-1889 to 5-9-1967)

August was the son of August Mencken (died 1-13-1899), a cigar factory owner (August Mencken & Bro. Manufacturers- 28 & 30 South Paca w/Branch house at the corner of Seventh and G, northwest in Washington DC-Baltimore Business Directory 1988) of German extraction. The family’s roots were in Leipzig, Germany. He was the brother of the well-known H.L. Mencken, he was self-educated as a civil engineer. He worked on railroads in the southern US for a few years before returning to Baltimore and at the start of WWI, he was in charge of construction at a military base at Fort Meade, Maryland. Post WWI he became the VP of an engineering firm working on various projects throughout the state. He spent several years working on the design of a distillery for the American Cider and Vinegar Company. When WWII erupted, he supervised construction at Edgewood Arsenal.

He enjoyed building miniatures including ship models, one which was located at the Naval Academy Museum in Annapolis, as well as at the Maryland Historical Society. He was also an exceptional woods craftsman. He loved ships and authored, ‘First Class Passenger’; ‘By the Neck’ and ‘Designing and Building the Great Pyramid’, which took him many years to complete. He also authored several pamphlets or short stories, many dealing with death, such as ‘The Fair Chanteuse’; The Reluctant Bride’; The Glamorous Mrs. Kite’, all following one group of characters, sort of like the modern day crime series.

Mr. Mencken was unmarried. After the death of his brother’s wife, the brothers both resided on Hollins Street. After H.L. Mencken’s stroke, August was his staunch supporter and caretaker. August was the last surviving Mencken to live on Hollins Street. He suffered a heart attack and diminishing health until his death at Union Memorial Hospital. His epitaph: his only regret is that he hadn’t sinned more.

Mr. Mencken is buried at Loudon Park Cemetery.

Mencken, Henry Lewis - Journalist, writer (9-12-1880 to 1-29-1956)

H.L. Mencken was the son of August Mencken (died 1-13-1899), a cigar factory owner (August Mencken & Bro. Manufacturers- 28 & 30 South Paca w/Branch house at the corner of Seventh and G, northwest in Washington DC-Baltimore Business Directory 1988) of German extraction. The family’s roots were in Leipzig, Germany. He was educated at the F. Knapp German and English Institute and Polytechnic High School. He took a night course in how to write copy for newspapers and business. He never attended college. He and his family moved to 1524 Hollins Street in the Union Square area and with the exception of five years of married life to Sara Hardt (8-27-1930 to 1935), he spent his entire life in this home. He returned to this house after the death of his wife Sara and lived with his brother August, who was also a writer. August wrote technical books.

He became a reporter for the Baltimore Morning Herald in 1899 and moved to the Baltimore Sun in 1906, where he contributed full time until 1948. He began writing editorials and op ed pieces and wrote short stories, a novel and even poetry. In 1908 he became a literary critic for the magazine The Smart Set and in 1924 founded The American Mercury, which became a national publication and very influential on college campuses across America. He resigned as an editor in 1933.

Henry Louis "H. L." Mencken, was an American journalist, essayist, magazine editor, satirist, acerbic critic of American life and culture, and a student of American English. Mencken, known as the "Sage of Baltimore", is regarded as one of the most influential American writers and prose stylists of the first half of the 20th century.

Mencken is known for writing The American Language (1919), a multi-volume study of how the English language is spoken in the United States, and for his satirical reporting on the Scopes trial, which he named the "Monkey" trial. The trial took place in 1925 (The State of Tennessee vs. John T. Scopes) and centered on the teaching of evolution.

Vincent Fitzpatrick oversees the Mencken Room at the Pratt Library. In his book, H.L. Mencken is states ‘England gave us Puritanism, Germany gave us Pilsner. Take your choice’. He attributed the diminution of ethnic Germans to the ‘melting pot’ they plunged in, shedding their difficult language and flaunting their appearance as look alikes of the English. One example of his pride in his German heritage. Mencken's grandfather was born in Saxony.

Mencken had a stroke in 1948 and never recovered. He is interred in Loudon Park Cemetery.

The Mencken House Reopens to Visitors 9-15-2018

Miller, Alfred Jacob (1-28-1810 to 6-26-1874)-Painter

Alfred Jacob Miller was born on January 10, 1810 in Baltimore, Maryland and was one of the first Caucasian artists to record life in the West. His parents encouraged his interest in drawing, and he received training in portraiture from Thomas Sully from 1831-1832. Miller went on a European tour in 1833 and studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the English Life School in Rome. Following this, he moved to New Orleans and established a studio where he met Captain William Drummond Stewart, a wealthy Scottish aristocrat and British Army officer. After looking at Miller's work in the studio, Stewart invited Miller to be a part of an expedition to the Rocky Mountains, where his only duty was to record the trip through sketches.

In April 1837, the party, consisting of 45 men and 20 carts, headed out with Thomas Fitzpatrick as their guide; the route they took would later be called the Oregon Trail. Miller returned from the trip with approximately 200 sketches, which were shipped to Stewart's Murthly Castle in Scotland. Miller would follow his sketches to Scotland, living at the castle from 1840 to 1842, and painting scenes from the trip while there. Once he had completed his commission for Stewart, Miller returned to Baltimore where he spent the rest of his career painting portraits and scenes from his journey "out West." He died in 1874 in Baltimore.

Mr. Miller is buried at Loudon Park Cemetery.

Miller, J. Maxwell (1877 to 1934)(Sculptor)

Monuments in Baltimore by J. Maxwell Miller:

  • Star-Spangled Banner Memorial at Patterson Park -J Maxwell Miller, a close friend and colleague of artists Edward Berge and Hans Schuler, produced the Star-Spangled Banner Memorial for the occasion. The sculpture depicts two school children holding a scroll that reads: “To commemorate the centennial of the writing of the Star-Spangled Banner, the pupils of the public schools of Baltimore have erected this memorial upon Hampstead Hill where in September, 1814, the citizen soldiers of Maryland stood ready to sacrifice their lives in defense of their homes and their country.”

  • Confederate Women of Maryland Monument -The memorial depicts two stoic women, one of whom is standing looking off into the distance, while the other kneels down clutching the body of a fallen soldier who has dropped his flag. The inscription reads, “In difficulty and danger, regardless of self, they fed the hungry, clothed the needy, nursed the wounded and comforted the dying.”

    • (Statue to the left is the Maryland Confederate Women's Statue. The statue was removed by then Mayor Catherine Pugh August 15, 2017.

  • Latrobe Monument (with Edward Berge) N. Broadway and E. Baltimore St.

  • Poetry Panel (Concert Hall of the Peabody Institute)

J. Maxwell Miller studied sculpture under William Rinehart at the Maryland Institute College of Art in Baltimore, and between 1900 and 1905, traveled to France to learn further from Raoul Verlet at the Julian Academy in Paris. His creations were well received in Europe, and when he returned to Baltimore he began his private practice preparing fine art for commission. Miller’s detailed work is best exemplified by his Star-Spangled Banner Memorial in Patterson Park (see photo-Works of J. Maxwell Miller). Dedicated in 1914, during the city’s massive centennial celebration of defensive victory in the War of 1812, the monument was placed directly in front of the park’s observatory. The accessible location allows for close inspection of the artist’s craft.

Miller was director of Rinehart from 1923 to 1933. (Maryland Institute's Rinehart School of Sculpture has been creating them since 1896). The 1930 Federal Census has Mr. Miller living at 1713 Bolton Street. It listed his as a sculptor with his own studio. Living with him was his wife Mary, Daughter, Mary and his mother-in-law, Mary Biggs. He was 52 at the time of the census and had been married for 32 years. [ED598, Ward 14].

See the works of J. Maxwell Miller

Nengel, Philip (1821 to 1872?) Fresco Painter

A young immigrant from Germany, was the artist who, in 1865, painted the images of the evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke and John above arches in Baltimore's Basilica of the Assumption. His art was hidden for 100 years and came to light with the restoration of the Basilica in 2004. The paintings were in perfect condition and needed no restoration. They are very striking and are among the most prominent features of the renovated basilica, the are 11 feet wide by eight feet high. He lived on Granby Street.

No monetary value has been placed on the paintings, but the Archdiocese of Baltimore considers their historical and religious value priceless.

Philip Nengel, son of Philip Nengel, painter of the Basilica frescoes and also a fresco painter himself was shown in the 1890 Baltimore Directory living at 297 N. Durham. Family members have indicated that Philip, the son lived on S. Castle and his brother Henry lived on Durham.

Further information on the artist was provided by a family member, R. Vaeth.

Niemann, Henry (4-28-1838 to 10-26-1899)

Mr. Niemann was one of Baltimore’s premier organ builders. He was born in Asnabuch, Westphalia, Germany and came to the U.S. in 1857. He worked in Germany as an apprentice cabinetmaker and when he arrived in the U.S., he got a job with an organ builder, John Cross, in Cincinnati. He left after two years and went to Paris (with Charles Barker, Cavaille-Coll) and Germany for fourteen years to study organ building.

He returned to the U.S., in 1872 with his bride Elizabeth (to 1924), they on their honeymoon. He opened his own business at Caroline and Holland Streets. His first partnership was with Christopher Doeller, also German. In 1878 he moved to North High Street, the same year he won the Maryland Institute Exhibition Gold medal. He moved his shop many times during his career.

He and Elizabeth had five children. The oldest son, Frank (10-1874 to 1937), continued the business of organ building. The other children are Henrietta (Hetta) (3-1873 to 1908); John (6-1876 to 1946); Ella (11-1878 to); and Cecilia (11-1880 to 1966).[1] It should be noted that Frank was an excellent organ maker in his own right. One of his major accomplishments was the organ at St. Alphonsus Church.

In 1892 he was at 561-63 East Monument Street. At the time of his death due to nephritis in 1899, he had built forty organs in Baltimore churches and in many other parts of the country. It is unknown where he is buried. It has been reported that he closed his shop and moved to Philadelphia.

There are only seven remaining organs in the Baltimore area:

Concert 125th Anniversary of Niemann Organ-First Unitarian Church

There is an excellent biography on the Henry Niemann in ‘The Organ Historical Society’, HilbusChapter, October 2014.

Henry Niemann is buried at Most Holy Redeemer Cemetery (Section E-Lot 101)

[1] According to the 1890 census, Elizabeth was living on Forrest Place with her five children. She is listed as a widow and Frank’s occupation is listed as an organ builder.

Ortmann, Otto (1-25-1889 to 1979)

Mr. Ortmann graduated from the Peabody Conservatory in 1917. He served on the faculty (harmony and piano) from 1917 to 1928 and then as the conservatory director. In 1929 he published Physiological Mechanics of Piano Technique, which was a study of the nature of muscular action used to play the piano and the effects upon the piano key and tone. Ortmann concluded, after examination and observation, that due to the way the human arm and hand are constructed, there were fundamental things a pianist had to do to get the desired results. He was director of the conservatory until 1944.

As for his ancestry, the 1920 U.S. census has Mr. Ortmann living at 1713 Fairmount Avenue in Baltimore with his wife Margaret and children Arnold and Dorothea. His mother Elizabeth was also living with him at the time. The census indicates that his father was German. Mr. Ortmann’s occupation according to the census was a music instructor.

Source: Piano Playing as a Science, Dale Keiger, Johns Hopkins Magazine, 4-2000.

Pomplitz, August (1826 to 2-3-1874)

Between 1851 and 1852, at the age of twenty-five, August Pomplitz emigrated from Rothenberg, Saxony. He was a pupil of the German court organbuilder Eberhardt. Here he established an organ building partnership in Baltimore with Henry Rodewald (Pomplitz and Rodewald). The first record of an organ built by Pomplitz was for the organ built for the Sisters of Charity, which was then located on Richmond Street (Read Street) and Park Avenue. The building was demolished in 1870.

The firm Pomplitz and Rodewald lasted from 1851 to 1861, although its factory, located on Albemarle and Pratt Streets, was destroyed by fire in May 1854, the factory was rebuilt with the use of insurance proceeds. In 1862, the firm became the Pomplitz Church Organ Company.

After his death from cancer in 1874, in Baltimore, Louisa, his wife and John W. Otto became the directors of the firm. Louisa was the executor of his estate and along with her brother, John Otto, an employee of the firm. They continued the business as 'The Pomplitz Church Organ Company'. They brought another employee, Caspar Melchor, but he left and the brother and sister team continued the business for another 10 years.

The precise number of the firm’s output in unknown, but it is estimated to have built about 225 instruments mostly for clients in and around Baltimore. Pomplitz’s largest instruments were for St. James (1868) and St. Vincent de Paul (1873).

Mr. Pomplitz married Louise (Otto 1836 to 11-30-1924) and together had three children, Emma (1858-1938), Celia (1860-1947) and Otto (1862-1863). He and his family are buried at Loudon Park Cemetery.


Click here for article contained in, ‘The OrganHistorical Society, Inc., Hilbus Chapter’, September 2014. This article includes a listing of organs produced by August Pomplitz.

The organ: an encyclopedia, Richard Kassel/US Census Records/Find-A-Grave

Prausnitz, Frederick Conductor (-11/2005)

Taught for many years at Baltimore's Peabody Institute died Nov. 12 at age 84. He was born in Cologne, Germany. He was considered one of the most important teachers of conducting in America. His book Score and Podium: A Complete Guide to Conducting is used as a text in courses on conducting.

Rinehart, William Henry (9-13-1825 to 10-28-1874)

Born on a Maryland farm near Union Bridge, William Rinehart became known for sculpture, especially marble and bronze portraits. He was the son of a German farmer in Carroll County. He was such as success that by the mid-1860s, "patrons had to wait two or three years for completion of portrait busts." Rinehart was taken under the wing of William T. Walters and was a close family friend.

As a young man, he became skilled at stone cutting, working as an apprentice to a stonecutter in Union Bridge, and in 1844, at age 19, he moved to Baltimore where he worked as foreman for Baughman and Bevan on the site of what is now the Peabody Institute of Baltimore. He studied sculpture at the Maryland Institute College of Art.

He continued his studies leaving for Italy in 1855. He returned in 1857 and opened a studio in Baltimore. He traveled back and forth to Italy spending most of his life in Italy.

Rinehart left his estate in trust for the education of sculpture at the Maryland Institute, where today the Maryland Institute College of Art Rinehart School of Sculpture is one of the most renowned in the country. The Rinehart School of Sculpture was accomplished when a $38,000 estate was left to William Walters. Walters invested the $38,000 and when it grew to $100,000, the school was built at the School for the Arts.At his death, pallbearers included William T. Walters and artist friends Frank B. Mayer, Andrew J. H. Way and Arthur Quartley. He is buried in Greenmount Cemetery.

In Rinehart's hometown of Union Bridge, Maryland, they have erected the monument.


  • The Woman of Samaria (bronze monument over Mrs. Walters Grave in Greenmount Cemetery)

  • Chief Justice Taney (front of State-House, Annapolis) Removed by Maryland Governor Larry Hogan on August 17, 2017

  • Indian & Backwoodsman (flanking the clock in the U.S. House of Representatives)

  • Fountain Figure at main U.S. Post Office in Washington, DC.

  • Clytie (Peabody Institute)

  • It has also been reported that he designed and built the bronze doors of the U.S. Capitol in DC.

Source: IAN CHILVERS. "Rinehart, William Henry." The Oxford Dictionary of Art. 2004. 3 Aug. 2010;

See the Works of William Rinehart

Schaefer, John (7-1830 to 11-13-1921)

John H. Schaefer, was born in Hesse Darmstadt. He was the proprietor of a photographic business at 887 West Baltimore street for 40 years and a former director of the Central Savings Bank of Baltimore. He came to the U.S. in the mid 1850s. [Directory of Maryland Photographers 1839-1900]. Mr. Schaefer founded his photographic business in 1861. Schaefer's "Gallery of Artistic Photography" was located at a series addresses in Baltimore: 671 W. Baltimore Street, 643 W. Baltimore, and 887 W. Baltimore. John William Schaefer, his son, took over the business after his father's retirement in 1900.

Mr. Schaefer was named a director in the Central Savings Bank of Baltimore when that institution was founded and continued in that position until he was stricken with paralysis in 1917.

He and his wife, Katherine, had five sons and four daughters.

Mr. Schaefer was buried from St. Paul’s Evangelical Lutheran Church and he will be buried at St. Paul’s in Druid Hill.

Baltimore SUN, 14 November 1921, Baltimore AMERICAN, 15 Nov 1921

Schetlich, Heinrich Wilhelm (1835-1921)

Heinrich Schetlich emigrated to Baltimore in 1857 from the small German town of Markneukirchen in Saxony where he was originally trained as a violin maker. He and his partner, Carl August Kummer, started a business making brass musical instruments under the name "Kummer & Schetlich" on North Front Street. Many of their instruments were played in military bands for both the North and South during the Civil War, and are still sought out by Civil War reenactors today. Kummer retired by 1890 and Schetlich moved the business and his family to North Gay Street across from Zion Church. His business expanded from making brass instruments to selling a wide variety of instruments, many imported from Markneukirchen. He married the former Pauline Hentschel, also from Markneukirchen, in Baltimore in 1865.They had seven children, two of whom became professional musicians in Baltimore and Philadelphia, and a son-in-law who played with the Baltimore Symphony. Both Heinrich and Pauline are buried in Loudon Park Cemetery.

Schroeder, Rev. John Frederick (4-8-1800 to 2-26-1857)

Rev. Schroeder, clergyman and author, was born in Baltimore. He studied at the Episcopal Theological Seminary at New Haven; was admitted to Holy Orders in 1823, and had charge of a parish on the Eastern Shore. Besides being a popular preacher, he delivered a course of lectures on Oriental literature; contributed a treatise on the ‘Authenticity and Canonical Authority of the Scriptures of the Old Testament’ and a treatise on the ‘Use of the Syriac Language’ to a volume of essays and dissertations on’ Biblical Literature’ edited by himself; published a memorial volume on the death of Bishop Hobart in 1830. He published in 1855 ‘Maxims of Washington, Political, Social, Moral and Religious;” Memoir of Mrs. May Anna Boardman, etc.,’ by her son-in-law in 1849; and at the time of his death he was engaged on ‘The Life and Times of Washington’’ a serial work of two volumes, of which he lived only to complete four numbers.

Schröder, Heinrich A. (1-15-1838 to 10-31-1896)

Mr. Schröder was born in Westphalia, Germany . He arrived in Baltimore about 1858. He was a well know lithographer and worked at the A. Hoen & Co. He was also a talented painter and illustrator, providing the cover work for Edward Leyh’s ‘Tannhäuser’ (see Mr. Leyh’s profile). He became the artistic leader at Hoen with his brilliant designs and simple works. His talent was acknowledged after his work on the Sesquicentennial celebration.

Schuler, Ann Didusch (1918 to 5-19-2010)-Portrait Painter

Born Ann Didusch in Baltimore, she was the fourth generation of a prominent family of artists whose roots went back to Germany. Her father James Didusch (see profile) and his brother, William Didusch (see profile) studied with Max Brödel (see profile) at the Johns Hopkins University, both becoming prominent medical illustrators.

Ms. Schuler was raised in East Baltimore and a graduate of Eastern High School. She received her art training from the Maryland Institute College of Art in 1940 and continued her studies at the Pennsylvania Academy of Arts. She did her graduate studies at the Maryland Institute. She became an assistant to artist and art restorer Jacques Maroger. Through him she learned to believe in the materials and techniques of the old masters.

She married Hans Schuler, Jr., son of Hans Schuler (see profile) in 1945. The couple joined the faculty of the Maryland Institute, where Hans taught sculpture and she painting. Becoming disenchanted with the rise of modern abstractionism, which conflicted with their deeply held belief in more traditional methods that included drawing, anatomy and perspective, they left the Institute and opened the Schuler School of Fine Arts located at 5 E. Lafayette Avenue. The location was built by the elder Schuler in 1906 and was used as his studio.

Source: The Baltimore Sun, May 20, 2010, By Frederick N. Rasmussen

Schuler, Hans, Sr.- Sculptor (5-25-1874 to 3-30-1951)

Lanier Memorial Grounds of Johns Hopkins University

Hans K. Schuler, born on May 25, 1874, became one of Maryland’s most prominent sculptors throughout the first half of the 20th century. Originally from Alsace-Lorraine, France, then under German sovereignty, the Schuler's family (parents: Otto Schuler and Amalia Arndt Schuler) emigrated to the United States while Hans was still a youngster. In fact, his parents came before him and sent for him when he was 6.

His early education was at Scheib’s School and after displaying an aptitude for art, he attended, at the age of 15, the Maryland Institute College of Art at Baltimore, Maryland, Hans was part of the first graduating class of the Institute's Rinehart School of Sculpture in 1898. He won three medals and the Charcoal Club Scholarship which enabled him to study at Rinehart. Hans spoke French when he arrived in the US, but was fluent in four languages.

Following graduation, Schuler was awarded scholarships for study in Paris where he studied under Raoul Verlet and where he won the Rinehart Scholarship in a competition, as well as three medals for sculpture; returning to Baltimore in 1906, to become one of the city’s most sought-after sculptors. Hans began receiving numerous commissions from private individuals, corporations, and civic groups.

Schuler’s creativity encompassed a broad range, including monumental groups, tomb figures, architectural ornament, commemorative medallions and coins. Hans became the first American sculptor ever to win the Salon Gold Medal. It is little known, that he also painted in watercolors and oils.

He joined the faculty of the Maryland Institute in 1909 and in 1925 was chosen as its director. For more than a quarter of a century he served as president of the Maryland Institute College of Art.

Today, numerous examples of Hans Schuler’s works can be found on display within several prominent museum collections including the National Portrait Gallery and Fogg Art Museum. Arlington National Cemetery, Louisiana State University, State University of New York, (Albany - Bronx) and many locations in and about the Maryland/D.C. area are adorned with public monuments crafted by Hans Schuler, a gifted German-American artist.

He was known as the 'Monument Maker'. One of his masterpieces was his Martin Luther statue, which was originally unveiled at Druid Hill Park in 1936, and now stands at Lake Montebello. Click here for Jill Yesko's excellent article on Schuler and the Luther monument.

Article from the Sunpaper, January 23, 1924, which states that his Fifth Regiment Bronze was his masterpiece.

Hans Schuler was also the co-owner with Otto J. Finger of the Schuler-Thomas Florists on Saratoga Street, which was founded in 1892.

Hans was married to Paula M. Schneider (1879-1957), the youngest of six daughters of Charles and Agnes Schneider, Mr. Schneider a German born restaurateur. They were married on January 15, 1905 at Zion Church in the City of Baltimore. The Schulers had two children, Hans, Jr. and Charlotte. He loved making things for his grandchildren.

He was a very active member of Zion Church, contributing his talents to the church and helping in many aspects of its development for the benefit of the local German community. Many of his pieces are in and around Zion. He was a member of the Society for the History of Germans in Maryland.

Note: The family and admirers of Baltimore's world renowned sculptor, Hans K. Schuler gathered 2006 to celebrate the founding of his studio in 1906 at E. Lafayette Ave. Schuler built the studio with a large glass northern exposure to take advantage of the natural light for his work. He served as the the director of the Maryland Institute College from 1925 until 1951. The family still owns the studio and the art school which operates there and houses over 100 of Schuler's works of art. Examples of some of his work: the statue of Sam Smith on Federal Hill; Johns Hopkins' bust at Charles St. and 33rd and the statue of Martin Luther in Druid Hill Park. You can make an appointment to visit the studio by calling at 410-685-3568. He is buried in Loudon Park Cemetery. The headstone of Hans Schuler was small and simple. It seemed ironic that someone who had created such beautiful monuments and memorials for so many had so little marking his grave.

Hans Schuler Obituary: The Baltimore Sun April 2, 1951

Funeral services for Hans Schuler, Baltimore sculpter and teacher who died Friday, will be held at 3:30 P.M. today at his home at 7 East Lafayette avenue. Burial will be in Loudon Park Cemetery.

Services will be conducted by the Rev. Fritz Evers, of Zion Lutheran Church.

Pallbearers will be William Cowan, Miltenberger N. Smull, Howard Frech, R. McGill Mackall, Wilmer A. Dehuff, Douglas R. Warner, C. C. Knobloch and C. Warren Colgan.

A native of Lorraine, former German province, Mr. Schuler who was 76, lived in Baltimore for most of the last 70 years. During that time he produced scores of of sculpured works that are today Baltimore landmarks.

He also served 25 years as director of the Maryland Institute of Art, from which he received his basic art education.

He is survived by his wife, Mrs. Paula Schneider Schuler, a son, Hans Schuler, Jr., a daughter, Mrs. Howard L. Briggs, of Frostburg, and three grandchildren.

The Sunpaper, one date after Schuler's death said of him, "In Baltimore he belonged to a school of sculptors of German lineage who held a monopoly here in that particular field for years".

Also one day after his death on April 3, 1951, A Letter to the Editor appeared. The letter was written by Adele Hofmann, wife of Pastor Julius Hofmann.

See the Works of Hans Schuler

The Schuler Studio-School and Gallery (June 10, 2013)

A Tribute to the Cemetery Monuments by Hans Schuler

Schuler, Hans, Jr., (1913 to 3-20-1999)-Sculptor-Painter

Really not a Jr., Hans C. Schuler, noted Baltimore sculptor and founder in 1959 of the Schuler School of Fine Arts at 5 E. Lafayette Ave.

Examples of his work include portrait busts, commemorative medals for universities and hospitals, and architectural renderings for numerous churches and public buildings.

Two noteworthy examples of his work are the Minute Man statue in the Reserve Officers' Association Building in Washington and della Robbia-style reliefs on the facade of Haussner's Restaurant in Highlandtown. He also completed the 75th anniversary medal for Goucher College, the Johns Hopkins University 50-year alumnus medal and the college seal medal for St. Mary's College of Maryland in St. Mary's City.

Mr. Schuler was born at 7 E. Lafayette Ave., the son of Hans Schuler, the nationally known sculptor and former director of the Maryland Institute, College of Art. His father's statues of Johns Hopkins, Sidney Lanier, Gen. Casimir Pulaski and Martin Luther are Baltimore landmarks. [See profile above]

Mr. Schuler graduated from Baltimore City College and earned a bachelor's degree from the Johns Hopkins University in 1935. He studied at the Maryland Institute's Rinehart School of Sculpture for five years and attended evening school at the Maryland Institute.

After serving as an infantry captain in the Army during World War II, he taught sculpture at the Maryland Institute in the late 1940s and 1950s, with his wife, Ann Didusch, a painter whom he married in 1945.

Source: Baltimore Sun 3-24-1999, Frederick Rasmussen

Strube, Gustav (3-3-1867 to 2-2 1953) Conductor/Composer

Born in Ballenstedt am Harz, Germany, Gustav's father Friedrich was the town musician. He played in his father’s orchestra. When ten years old, he was a exceptional violinist. His formal education began at sixteen when he entered the Leipzig Conservatory. After three years at the Conservatory he became a member of the Gewandhaus Orchestra in Leipzig. He also became a member of the Municipal Opera House. The conductor at the time was Arthur Nikisch. Nikisch invited Strube to join him when he was invited to conduct the Boston Symphony Orchestra. In 1890 Strube joined the violin section of the Boston Orchestra. He was invited to join the Peabody Institute in 1913 and he and his family then moved to Baltimore. He received an honorary doctorate degree from the Philadelphia Music Academy. He was an exceptional musician of many instruments and a fine composer. He was called ‘Papa Strube’ at Peabody. He was a member of the ‘Saturday Night’ club, meeting often in his home. He was the founding conductor of the Baltimore Symphony Orchestra in 1916, and taught at the Peabody Conservatory (1916 to 1946). He wrote one opera, Ramona, which premiered in 1916.

He was a musician, composer, philosopher, winemaker, linguist and cook.

Sudsburg, Colonel Joseph M. (3-17-1827 to 4-9-1901)

Joseph was the son of Peter and Clarissa (Weaver) Sudsburg. He was born in Nymphenburg, Bavaria. His father was all his life in the service of the Bavarian Government, being first an officer in the army. His father was a court official in the Royal Palace Schloss Nymphenburg in Munich Germany. After engaging in two campaigns against Napoleon he retired and took a civil office, which he held the remainder of his life. He died in 1854 in the age of sixty-five. His ancestors had been proprietors in Lower Bavaria for at least four hundred years. He attended Jesuit School prior to military education. The Von Sudsburg belonged to the lower nobility, and consequently were able to secure a military education for the young Joseph at Marie Theresa Military Academy in Wiener, Neustadt, Austria. His mother's family, who were from Austria, was also influential in obtaining for him a free education in the Austrian Military School, from which he graduated, at the age of seventeen, and joined the Austrian Army.

But though brought up a Catholic, and under the repressive influence of a most despotic government, he was born with an intense love of liberty, and a hatred of every arbitrary rule. The cause of the struggling Poles enlisted all his sympathies, and at the age of nineteen he joined with them in the fight for freedom. When they failed he had of course to fly for his life and gaining the soil of France. He joined the French Army. Which he accompanied the same year to Africa, against the Arabs. In that country he remained three years; he then went to Holland. Soon after he joined insurrection of 1849 of Baden against the monarchy, in its effort to become a republic. The thirty-six thousand revolutionists were driven back and took refuge

During 1848-1850 he had lived in Switzerland. He applied for one month passport to travel to America via Besancon, France on 11 September 1850 with the Confederation Switzerland, Federal Department of the Justice and Police Force. He stopped in Besancon, France on 16th September 1850. In 1851 He took a ship in France to New York City New York. He settled first in New York. While He lived in New York City, he learned the carving business which he had ever since since a means of livelihood, and in which he was still engaged. At the New-York Exhibition of the Industry of All Nations, Joseph Sudsburg of 103 Elm Street, New York City NY exhibited his Carved Arm Chair in 1853. He married Lucy Dunn in 1853 at a Roman Catholic church in New York City, New York. She died one year later. In 1854 he removed to Baltimore. He occupied an entire three-story building 80x20 feet in dimensions. In 1857, having became an adept at the trade, he established himself in business as a general wood carver and designer and had met with much success, his trade extending to all parts of Maryland. His extensive establishment was fully established with stock and every facility and mechanical appliances for successfully carrying on the business. A staff of competent assistants were employed. The most claborate sideboads and artistic furniture of all kinds were produced, the work all being done by hand. Designing and carving is executed to order, and designs of all sorts were also furnished by Mr Sudsburg. He had attained prominence as a wood carver and designer. He did the carving doors at the City Hall in Baltimore Maryland. He carved many altars in churches and woodwork in homes and Walter Home at Mt Vernon. He worked for Mr Thomas W. Morse of the firm of Hays and Morse

On the breaking out of the civil war, early On 22 August of 1861, he joined the Union Army, entering the Second Maryland Regiment as private, but was mustered in as captain of company K under Second Maryland Infantry on September 18, 1861. He was transferred to Fourth Maryland Infantry (German Rifles) on November 1861. He was discharged on 6th May 1862. He was promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel, Third Regiment, and promoted to the Lieutenant-Colonel on May 7, 1862. Six months afterward he was made Colonel on October 24, 1862. His commission dating September 1, 1862.

He returned to Baltimore after being discharged honorably. He conducted one of Baltimore's first art schools in designing, drawing and modeling in clay, wood and stone carvings on Park Avenue near Fayette Street but the building was burned after several years. He resumed his wood carving business. George Aloysius Frederick, Architect of Baltimore City Hall, tapped Colonel Joseph Martin Sudsburg to design and carve the mahogany wood doors with seal of Baltimore City Government at City Hall. The wood was purchased from Brennan's in Gay Street, near Fayette Street. His drawing called for bronze doors but the City of Baltimore could not afford to purchase the bronze doors. He and his son Joseph A. also decorated the interior of local churches, such as St James the Less at Eager and Aisquith Streets, and St. Alphonsus churches, both in Baltimore Maryland. He also decorated some of the old homes along Charles, Calvert and St. Paul Streets in Baltimore. He also did all mahogany carvings at William Walters house in Mount Vernon place.

He married October 19, 1855 to Miss Maria Jane Rankin of Baltimore, Maryland, and had five children. Joseph Augustus, William Peter, Randolph Edward, Louis J. and Mary. Miss Mary Rankin was born in Ireland in 1835. She was sent to United States on her uncle s sailing vessel to avoid religious persecution.

Maria died on December 30, 1890 and was buried in St Vincent Cemetery in Baltimore, Maryland. Joseph then married Helen Ziegelhoffer of Baltimore Maryland at the St. Matthew Lutheran Church on March 19, 1893. She was born in Germany on May 5, 1829 and died on December 23, 1916. They were buried at New Loudon National Cemetery (United States Military Cemetery).

Joseph Martin died April 8, 1901

Click herefor information about his military history.

Click herefor the ‘Sudsburg’ Genealogical website.

Biography reprinted with permission of Michael Edward Graziano, page owner.

Sutro, Otto (2-24-1833 to1896)

Mr. Sutro was born in Aachen, Rhenish Prussia. His father was Emanuel Sutro, his mother Rosa Warendorf. His father was an extensive cloth manufacturer, employing many hundreds.

Otto showed a talent for music at a very young age, which was encouraged and promoted by his parents. After instruction by the best masters of his native city, his father took him to the renowned Mendelssohn in 1845, who advised that Otto be sent to the Conservatory of Music. His father died around that time and his mother changed the plans and sent him to the Conservatory of Music at Brussels. He did very well. His mother emigrated, with his siblings, to the U.S. Otto, drawn by his affection for his mother, followed her and arrived in New York in 1851. He went directly to Baltimore. He obtained a position as an organist to the Trinity Protestant Episcopal Church. He caught ‘California Gold Fever’ and left to find his fortune. He worked as an organist at the Catholic Cathedral in San Francisco, Dr. Scott’s Church and Kipp’s Protestant Episcopal Church. He taught music and played music. His brother, Adolph also immigrated. He was an engineer and became the Mayor of San Francisco.

The tug of his family again called him and he returned to Baltimore in February 1858, and made it his permanent home. He played many charity events during the Civil War and established ‘Wednesday Night at Sutro’s’, which laid the foundation of the ‘Wednesday Club’.

Tietsch, Ludwig O. (anglicized Teach) (4-7-1895 to 10-26-1964)

Mr. Teach was a businessman and lover of music. He was born in Mannheim, Germany into a musical and artistic family. His father was an actor, his mother a musician. He fought in Germany in WWI and was wounded and it was necessary to amputate his leg above the knee. In 1921 he came to the U.S. and stayed with an uncle in St. Louis. He came to Baltimore in 1925 to work for Marcus and Horkmeier, wool merchants.

He was among a group of young people who met to play recordings of Bach’s music. They met at first once a week and then twice a week, both listening and playing the music of Bach. They called themselves the Bach Club and on July 16, 1930, offered their first Bach program at Stieff Hall. Mr. Teach was the guiding spirit of the concerts presented by the Bach Club. He was able to bring famous German violinist Adolf Busch to Baltimore, where he gave a capacity audience in the Alcazar hall a full program of Bach. Mr. Teach was most active in the Bach Club from 1934/1935.

Mr. Teach retired from Marcus & Horkheimer in 1952. His pride and joy was his collection of original letters of Brahms, Clara Schumann, Liszt and others.

Volck, Adalbert John (4-14-1828 to 3-26-1912)

Mr. Volch was born in Augsburg, studied in Munich and Nürnberg. He was the son of Andreas Volck, a manufacturing chemist in Nuremberg. Adalbert had to leave Germany because of his involvement in the Revolution of 1848. He was sentenced to four years service in the Bavarian Army. He immigrated and to America. After a few years in St. Louis and California he settled in Baltimore. He studied dentisty at the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, where he graduated in 1852. He practiced dentistry in Baltimore for many years and was successful with many families in Baltimore and Catonsville. He married Letitia Alleyn and together they had two sons and three daughters. He helped establish the Academy of Art, Allston Association, the Wednesday Club and the Charcoal Club. During the Civil War he was active as a Confederate cartoonist. He was pro-Southern which was the opposite sentiment of most Germans in the area at that time. His caracatures took aim at the most important political figures of that time including Lincoln, General Scott and the Governor of Maryland, Thomas Hicks. He drew a series of sketches under the name V. Blada. His best known work is one of Lincoln signing the 'Emancipation Proclamation' with his foot resting on the US Constitution and the devil holding the ink well. After the War he painted portraits. His cartoons are at the Smithsonian and portraits may be found in several galleries.

He is also responsible for the medallion portrait of Edgar Allen Poe on the Poe Monument, which is located in the Westminster Presbyterian churchyard at the corner of Greene and Fayette Streets in Baltimore City.

He is buried in Loudon Park Cemetery. His younger brother was a well-known sculptor in Baltimore. Both were prominent in the artistic and social life of their adopted hometown.

Zassenhaus, Dr. Hiltgunt (7-10-1916 to 11-20-2004)

Dr. Zassenhaus was born in Hamburg, Germany, to Julius H. and Margaret Ziegler Zassenhaus, and was a long-time resident of the Baltimore. She earned a bachelor's degree from the University of Hamburg in 1938 and thereafter worked in Hitler's justice department where she used her position to aid the victims of the Nazi regime.

The family opposed Hitler and Hiltgunt's father lost his job as a principal when the Nazis came to power in 1933.

She adored languages and on a trip to Denmark fell in love with Scandinavian languages. While at the University of Hamburg, she studied both Norwegian and Danish, while working on her medical degree. It was the language skills that the Nazis found favorable. Initially declining the position, she later agreed, but required independent work in the German Department of Justice. Here her job was to censor mail from Jewish ghettos in Poland. Later she worked as a supervisor for Scandinavian political prisoners. She was a godsend to many, bringing in vitamins, paper, medical supplies and more, of course on the sly. She kept records of each, names, where they were housed, etc. She visited 52 camps and prisons. Her lists were used by the Scandinavian Red Cross. She risked her life many times over. It was her notes, however, that provided guidance for the Danish and Swedish Red Cross who sent buses to retrieve the prisoners in 1945. It is estimated that her efforts saved approximately 1300 prisoners.

She was unable to continue her studies in Germany because of the severe war damage and Germans were not allowed in Denmark. She was smuggled into Denmark in a fish truck. Here she finished her studies at the University of Bergen and the University of Copenhagen, where she earned her doctorate in 1952

The same year she came to Baltimore and interned and did her residency at City Hospital. Thereafter she began her private medical practice. She became world-famous because of her research and treatment of "blue babies".

Dr. Zassenhaus received honorary doctoral degrees from Western Maryland College, Goucher College, The College of Notre Dame of Maryland, Towson University and the University of Maryland.

Her award-winning book Walls, about her experiences in Germany, was translated into many languages and is still in print. It was named one of the top 25 books for young adults in 1974. Another of her books was made into a television documentary. She was a nominee for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1974 and received high honors in Europe. William Donald Schafer presented her the Mayor's citation and Gov. Harry Hughes named her to the Maryland Hall of Fame.

Zimmermann, Lt. Charles (1861 to 1-16-1916)

He was born in Newport County, Rhode Island. Charles was a graduate of Batlimore’s Peabody Institute and head of the Naval Academy band for 24 years. He was honored on 1-26-07 at the Naval Academy Chapel. He was appointed the Navy’s bandmaster in 1892 and served in that position until 1916. His father was a German immigrant and also a Navy musician during the Civil war.

Zimmerman was a prolific composer and began a tradition of composing a march for each graduating class. He is the composer of ‘Anchors Aweigh’ The tune is the same as that written in 1906. The last stanza was changed in 1926. He composed original operettas for the midshipmen, led the glee club and played the church organ. He is interred at the Naval Academy.


[1] Naive artists are generally self-taught and the works of naive artists are often characterized by awkward control of perspective and a refreshingly original use of color. Although they lack artistic training, naive artists are not necessarily people without education.