Brewers & Breweries


A new book, published in 2012 and written by Rob Kasper, provides an excellent overview of the brewery business in Baltimore.

See 'Baltimore Brew', available at most book stores and on

Memorial Volume''An Account of the Municipal Celebration of the One hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement of Baltimore, October 11-19, 1880, Printed by order of the Mayor and City Council.

Maryland’s Breweries:

List of Breweries (If you have information and/or would like to add to the list, please email me at

The site contains information about the starred (*) Brewers/Breweries

*Albion Brewery (see Bernhardt Berger)

Adler, E. F. Enterprise Brewery. E.E. Adler Proprietor, Corner of Garrison Lane (Franklintown Road) near Baltimore Street

Adler & Muhlheiser

Altevogt, Third Avenue and Trappe Road

Altvater, Henry (1819-1823)-44 Clay Street [Wagon Alley]

Auer's W. Lager Beer Brewery, Frederick Road

Baier's Lager Beer Brewery, Trappe Road and 2nd Avenue, Canton

Baltimore Brewing Company (1855 to 1935)-According to the 1890 Directory, located at the foot of Ridgely Street at junction of W. Pratt & Frederick Street. P.A. Seeger, President, Edward Knite, Treasurer.

*John & Elias Barnitz (See also Globe)

*Bauernschmidt, Geo. Greenwood Park Brewery.

*Bauernschmidt. Jr., John Jacob-Mount Brewery-1707 W. Pratt Street (1890)

*Bauernschmidt/Strauss Brewing

*Bauernschmidt Frederick-American Brewery-1104-1126 Hillen Street

Bauernschmidt, Geo. proprietor, Greenwood Park Brewer-Block bounded by Belair Avenue, Oliver and Chester Sts.

*Bauernschmidt & Marr Brewing Co., Spring Garden Brewery-1540 Ridgely Street (1890) (John Bauernschmidt)

Bayview (WeisBier)

*Beck, August -Frank Steil Independent Brewing Co.-Garrison Lane and Frederick Road; August Beck Lager Beer Brewery 46 Garrison Lane (1890)

Beck, Henry-Weiss Beer, 2031 E. Fayette Street

Beck, Thomas Lager Beer Brewery-W. Baltimore Street and Calverton Road

*Berger, Bernhardt-Albion Brewery-1432 Belvedere (1890)

*J.M. Berger’s

Boyd, John

Brandall's (Matthew) Mount Pleasant Lager Beer Brewery, Garrison Lane and Frederick Road

*George Brehm Brewery-Brehm's Lane-Belair Road (George & Henry Brehm)

Bruton Brewing Company (1935-1940)

Butterfield & Co.

Chesapeake Brewing - 1528 to 1534 Pennsylvania Ave. (also shown at 424 W. Baltimore Street)

*Cumberland Brewing Company

Darley Park Brewing (1868 to 1901)Harford Road near North Avenue. 1888 Baltimore Business Directory has it located at Harford Rd. at the corner of North and Saratoga. H. Straus , Bro. proprietors. See Monumental Brewing as well for post 1901.

Dawson Brewing

*Dukehart, Thos. M. Maryland Brewery-Thomas Beck

*Eigenbrot Brewery (1873 to 1920)-101 S. Willard which became-10 to 40 Wilkins Avenue

Eigenbrot, Henry, Empire Brewery-345 S. Wolfe (1890)

Fenker, August -Weiss beer, 1904-1919, 1715 North Spring and Lanvale Streets

Freestate Brewing (1900 to 1950) Frederick Bauernschmidt 1108 Hillen Street

*Old German Brewery-Cumberland Maryland/Queen City Brewing

George Pabst Brewery (not related to the Milwaukee Pabst) O'Donnell & Baylis Sts.

Gottlieb-Bauernschmidt-Straus Brewing Co.-313 South Hanover Street

*Globe Brewing Company-Hanover and Congress Sts.

Grimmer's V. Lager Beer Brewery, Lancaster and Third Sts. Canton

*Gunther Brewery (1900 to 1959)-Corner of Third and Toone Sts.; 1888 Baltimore Business Directory, corner of Third & O'Donnell.

Gunther & Gehl

*Hagerstown Brewery

*Hals Brewing (1748 to 1952)(See Globe)

*Hamm (Charles) Brewery (1868 to 1901)

Hecht, Miller & Co., Bayview Brewery

*Helldoerfer, Sebastian Star Brewery, Calverton Road-with T. Dukehart, Mount Brewery (JJ Bauernschmidt), 1707 Pratt Street (1890)

Hoburg, Conrad 1791-1796, Broadway and Fairmount Avenue

*Hoenervogt (also Henervogt Park)

Hoffman's Brewery, Falls Road

Imperial Brewing Company (1960 to 1973)

Klemm Brewing

Lucas Brewery - Globe Brewing Company (1748 to 1963)

Martz, Nicolas

Miller, J.M. Lager Beer Brewery, 394 Pennsylvania Avenue

Miller, V., Lager Beer Brewery, Burke Street, Canton

*Monumental Brewing Company-Corner of Eighth and Lombard Sts. (between 1901-1912 also associated with Darley Park Breweries at Lombard, Eaton, Haven and Baltimore Streets; Harford Road and Broadway)-John Tjarks

Mueller & Handloser

Muth, Louis & Son Lager Brewery, Bel Air Avenue

*National Brewing (1885 to 1974)-Third and O'Donnell Streets

Odenwald & Joh's Lager Beer Brewery-7 Calverton Road

*Pabst, George Lager Beer Brewery, Second and O'Donnell Sts., Canton

Pabst, Louis-Weiss Beer-840 Bond Street (1890)

Phoenix Brewery (prior Nagengast & Bros)-See also Henry Werner

Theodore Reichhart Brewing

Rochester Brewring Company, Baltimore and Holliday Street

*Rossmarck Brewery (Ferdinand T. Rossmarck) Foot of Cross Street/Federal Hill; Also Spring Garden Brewery (see Bauernschmidt & Marr, where Ferdinand Rossmarck served as Super)

Sandkuhler, Frank -101 N. Collington Avenue (in 1890 3340 McElderry Street)

Saratoga Brewery, Joshua Medtart, 1833-1857, Fremont and Saratoga Streets

Saumernig, Johannes (Camden Brewery) 1804-1819, 408 Camden Street

Schierlitz, Joseph

*Schlaffer, Franz & Sons, Oriental Brewery, Lancaster and Third Streets

Schneider. F. -3rd & Dillon Street, Canton

Schreier, Joseph

Schreiner, Charles-Harford Road (Darley Park)

Schultheiss, John

*Seeger’s, Jacob, Crystal Brewer-Pratt Street and Frederick Road (1851 Map)

Seeger & Stiefel's Lager Beer Brewery, Carrollton

Sommerfeld, John-2125 Calverton Road

*Steil, Frank Brewing Company, 44-46 Garrison Lane, 202 Garrison Lane

*Solomon Straus Malster

*Standard Brewing-1766 North Gay St. (George Rost)

Stiefel, E W (Carrollton Lager Beer Brewery-Frederick Road)

Straus, H. Bro & Co., Darley Park Brewery.

*Straus, J L. & Bro. National Brewery.

Straus W. H.

Trust, John

Union Brewing Co.

*Von der Horst -Eagle Brewery & Malt House-Bel Air Avenue

-Max Guethler

*Wehr, Hobelmann & Gottlieb (See also Globe)

Weber, Frederick, Lager Brewery-Harford Road

*Henry Werner's Lager Beer Brewery -1530Pennsylvania Avenue-See Phoenix Brewery

Western Maryland Brewery-Robert Handloser, 1552 Pennsylvania Avenue at Pitcher (Also shown as Maryland Brewery in 1890 Directory; and as Mueller (Mrs. Cath. Mueller) & Handloser in the 1887 Souvenir Brewers Book)

*Wiesner's Frederick, Lager Beer Brewery, Bel Air Avenue

*Wiessner, J. F. (1896 to 1916)-1700 North Gay Street-American Brewery

*Wiessner, J. F. & Bro., Brewing Company- 301 Eastern Avenue

*Wiessner, J. F. & Bro., Brewing Co., Fort Marshall Brewery

*Wiessner, John, Lager Beer Brewery, Highland and 2nd Avenues (Canton)

Worner, Otto

Wunder, F.

Frederick- Baer, Heck, Hauser, Kuhn and Lipps founded breweries in Frederick

Western Maryland-Beck, Fersenmeier, Hodel, Himmler and Zink

The 1870 Federal Census: There were 8 Brewers in Baltimore, employing 86 persons and having a production value of $254,304.

In 1877 the production of the 65 breweries in the Revenue District amounted to 247,722 barrels

The year-report for the year 1886 shows 529,111 blls..

Photo Courtesy Robert Kresslein (Monumental Brewing)

John Barnitz (11-24-1677 to 11-19-1749) & Elias Daniel Barnitz (to 2-6-1780) First Brewers of Baltimore Town:

Zion Church can claim the first brewer of Baltimore Town, Elias Daniel Barnitz, as a founding member our congregation. Along with his father John, they established their brewery in 1748. John was born in Falkenstein in the Palatinate of Germany on November 24, 1677, arriving in America in 1732 at the age of 55. In Germany he had been an apprentice brewer. Elias Daniel was also born in Falkenstein, prior to 1721. After residing in York County, Pennsylvania, John arrived in Baltimore Town in 1748 at the age of 71. He and his son found the Baltimore settlement surrounded by a stockade fence, erected in 1746. Lost to history is the purpose of the stockade, but it was believed to provide protection from hostile Native Americans west of the town.

The Barnitz brewery was gratefully welcomed by Baltimore's early inhabitants, about 30 families in all. The brewery was viewed as both a source of liquid refreshment and impetus to attract other businesses to the nascent settlement, then just 22 years old. The original brewery was located at the southwest corner of Baltimore and Hanover Streets, today the entrance to Hopkins Plaza and cater-corner to the Lord Baltimore (Radisson) Hotel. This was one of the original lots of Baltimore Town, purchased from Charles Carroll, Sr. He was father of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, a signer of the Declaration of Independence.

To place this brewery in historical context, George II was King of England and Sovereign Lord of the Province of Maryland. Samuel Ogle was Governor of Maryland, and George Washington was just a lad of sixteen. Tobacco was used as currency.

Unfortunately, the elder Barnitz died on November 19, 1749, surviving his brewery but for one year. The brewery was then passed on to Elias Daniel. Although no description of Baltimore Town's first brewery exists, it was assumed to be diminutive in size and small in output, one or two stories in construction and employing no more than three workers. Equipment was likely crude, consisting of copper cookers, fermenting tubs and racking for casks and kegs. The entire brewing process was done by manual labor. The water supply was drawn from a well. The "aging" period was likely a short one as there was no cooling cellar to lager the beer. Records indicate beer was produced at this location until about 1815, with the building itself lasting over 100 years, until 1853.

And so brings us to Elias Daniel’s role in the establishment of the Zion Lutheran Church. The first church in Baltimore Town was St. Paul's at Charles and Saratoga Streets. In 1750, the few German settlers organized the First German Reformed Congregation across the street, of which Barnitz was an early member. According to Scharf's "Chronicles of Baltimore", early Zion Church records indicate both Lutherans and German Reformed congregations worshipped together up to 1758, where "great friendship and harmony prevailed." According to Pastor Julius Hofmann's 1905 history of Zion Church, "A few years after the city of Baltimore was laid out, several German families betook themselves thither to live, of which Mr. Vitus Hartweg, harness-maker, was the very first." Further, pastor wrote: "With this scheme (for the establishment) of Zion Lutheran Church the aforesaid gentlemen went to Herr Lawson (Alexander Lawson, owner of the property on Saratoga Street, then called Fish Street, where the church was desired to be established), taking with them Mr. Michael Tieffenback, as elder of the church, and Mr. Hartweg, harness-maker, and Mr. Daniel Barnets (sic) (brewer) as representatives of the church. The contract was then made." This was in 1755, and the Fish Street Church was constructed in 1758 through the proceeds from a lottery. The Second Constitution of the church, adopted August 5, 1773, contains the signatures of Messrs. Hartweg and Barnitz along with 147 others. In 1808, the Fish Street church was abandoned for the current building on Gay Street due to the constant flooding of a nearby Jones Falls tributary.

Elias Daniel Barnitz died in Baltimore on February 6, 1780, having conducted his brewery for 31 years. He was but the first of over two dozen Baltimore brewers who were Zion members, firmly establishing us as the “Brewers’ Church.”

Above information courtesy of Mark Duerr-posted 10-29-2013

The Bauernschmidt Family

The Bauernschmidt Brothers, born to Johann (7-22-1804) and Barbara Hötzlelein (9-25-1798) in Wannbach, Franconia, Germany. Barbara was born in Unterzaunsbach. They were married on March 2, 1829. They had four children. All three sons were in the brewery business. The church where they were baptized is in a neighboring village (Hetzelsdorf)

  • Kunigunda (born 2-24-1828)

  • Johann Jacob (born 6-10-1830)

  • Johann George (born 5-28-1835)

  • Johann Thomas (born 3-18-1838)

Thanks to Rainer Dörry for the additional information

Bauernschmidt, Johann George (5-28-1835 to 4-1-1899)

Mr. Bauernschmidt was born in Wannbach, Franconia, Germany, and when arriving in the U.S. in 1853 began working as a brewmaster in an existing brewery, but later opened his own brewery, the George Bauernschmidt plant in 1864. It had humble beginnings being a small plant on Belair Avenue (1501 North Gay Street). It was in the neighborhood of Schützen Park. This plant was in the same vicinity as his wife’s (Margarethe Wiessner, born in Uehlfeld, Germany 6-16-1838) brother’s (J. Frederick and Henry Wiessner) brewery. The Bauernschmidts’ had seven children. George’s business flourished and as his son’s grew, they became involved in the business. Frederick (profile below) was treasurer of the company and his brother, John, was the vice president. According to Baltimore: Its’ Past and Present-A Souvenir book for the U.S. Brewer’s Assn. 1887, the plant put out about 60,000 barrels that year and a bottling establishment was built). In 1898, the Maryland Brewing Company was formed and because of the success of George’s plant, the Maryland Company acquired it. George welcomed the sale, as he was ready to retire. Frederick wasn’t quite ready, nor was John, so George bought out their interest in the plant. George Bauernschmidt is buried at Lorraine Cemetery.

For additional information compiled by Cynthia Requardt, click here

Bauernschmidt, John Jacob Jr.

(6-10-1830 to 6-28-1879)

John was the first of the Bauernschmidt brothers to come to America. He arrived in the US in 1853, from his hometown of

Wannbach, Franconia, Germany. He was the brother of Johann George (see above). His brewery was called the Mount Brewery and some accounts indicate that it was called the Lager Beer Brewery. The brewery was located at 1500 Ridgely Street and operated from 1859-1879. The name was later changed to the Spring Garden Brewery of Bauernschmidt and Marr. His was one of the larger breweries of that time and he and his family lived on the brewery premises, which was common. They also housed many of their workers. At his early death, his wife and her brother John Marr continued operating the brewery and beer garden until it closed in 1889.

Bauernschmidt, Frederick (1-10-1863 to 3-8-1933) Brewer & Philanthropist

Frederick was the son of George and Margaretha* (Wiessner) and was born in Baltimore. His father was born in Germany and both George and Margaretha’s families were involved in the brewing business. When Frederick’s father, George (see profile above) sold the plant to the Maryland Brewing Company, Frederick started his own business to compete with the brewing giant, which at the time had purchased and consolidated all of the breweries in the city of Baltimore. He chose to open his plant near the Belair Market, which had plenty of space available for parking wagons, etc. Frederick had long experience and the knowledge to undertake such a venture. He began construction of a modern brewery in 1897, when the country was still unsettled due to the recent ‘panic of 1893’[1]. He borrowed large amounts of money to complete the plant and in 1899, his American Brewery began operations. He suffered through many years of difficulty in establishing his operation, but by 1918 his business had grown substantially. It was reported that an English syndicate offered him three million dollars for the business. He did not sell and due to the adoption of the Prohibition amendment, his brewing business became almost worthless overnight. At the time of the adoption of the amendment, he was brewing 350,000 barrels of beer a year. He was fifty-five and faced with forced retirement. He still maintained a large fortune. The brewery operated from 1899-1919.

Frederick also sat on the Board of Directors for the 'Free State' Brewing Company, which reopened the brewery. The brewmaster, John Merzbacher, was previously the brewmaster for Gunther. It is said that it was named 'Free State' because the term was used by an editorial writer due to the fact that Maryland would not hire enforcement agents during prohibition. The brewery was located at 1108 Hillen and operated from 1900 to 1950.

His will reflected the type of person Frederick was. Shortly after his retirement in 1921, he made his will and established a legacy of $500,000 for various charities in Baltimore in addition to a trust of $1,000,000 payable after the death of his wife. Frederick had become a philanthropist. One of his most significant contributions to Baltimore, however, was the donation to the Union Memorial Hospital. After discussing particulars with Dr. J. M. Finney (Mr. Bauernschmidt’s physician), once Senior Surgeon and Chief of Staff at the hospital, Mr. Bauernschmidt was determined to erect and equip the building on the Guilford Avenue front of the hospital, which was eventually named the Frederick Bauernschmidt Memorial Building.

He was generous to the point of being lavish in equipping the hospital throughout.

Mr. Bauernschmidt dedicated time and resources to the ‘middle class’. He was persuaded that the well to do and the poor received the best hospital treatment and he wanted to help the great middle class who were sometimes unable to meet their obligations to the hospital. He established a trust fund of one millions dollars in securities, the income of which should be devoted to those who through unfortunate circumstances were unable to pay the cost of their hospitalization in full. In his letter dated March 12, 1925, to his Trustees, he indicates the goal toward which he is striving and gives practical directions, born of his long and successful business career, in the operation of the Fund.

Mr. Bauernschmidt’s beneficiaries included, not only the Union Memorial Hospital, but also included hospitals operated under Jewish, Catholic and Protestant auspices and covered hospitals located in every section of the city. The trust was so successful that he conveyed all of his real estate holdings, except his home in Baltimore and a summer home in Middle River, to trustees to manage for the benefit of the Hospital for Consumptives at Eudowood and the Home for Incurables. The value of his real estate holdings was at one time estimated to be more than a million dollars. At the time of his death he gave one million additional to various hospitals in Baltimore, payable upon the death of his wife and $500,000 to various other charities. He gave $50,000 each to the General German Aged People's Home and to the General German Orphan Association, and equal sums for the Maryland School for the Blind and the Maryland School for the Deaf. An examination of the will discloses that there are not less than thirty separate charitable institutions receiving substantial legacies.

From the Baltimore Evening Sun at the time of his death, "Any man who has given away nearly $3,000,000 must be regarded as a notable personage, but it was not merely the great size of his benefactions that made Frederick Bauernschmidt remarkable. The way in which he gave was as distinctive as the size of his donations”. "He had small respect for that sort of charity that confines itself to scattering alms among the beggars. He believed that a little assistance given a hard-working man pursued by bad luck does more good in the world than much larger amounts spent in supporting the worthless. Thus, when he made his donations to the hospitals, he arranged it so that the benefit should accrue, not to paupers, but to self-respecting people accustomed to pay their own bills but not in position to pay the heavy bills that hospital treatment runs up. He furnished free treatment to nobody; but he made it possible for people with little money to pay with their little for the best of treatment for their loved ones.

*Margarethe Bauernschmidt is named on Zion's Frauenverein memorial as passing away in 1912. This shows they were members of Zion Church of the City of Baltimore. The family is interred at Druid Ridge Cemetery.

For additional information compiled by Cynthia Requardt, click here.

Bauernschmidt, John (3-18-1838 to 3-3-1897)

The third brother to immigrate from Wannbach, Franconia, Germany, 'Little John' opened his brewery at 1700 W. Pratt Street after his arrival in the US in 1864. His brewery operated from 1873 to 1889, when it was purchased by the British-American syndicate and operated as the City of Baltimore United Breweries.

For additional information compiled by Cynthia Requardt, click here.

Beck, August (7-25-1821 to 9-5-1849)

Beck, August Jr. (7-28-1849 to 1-23-1902)

(Tom Beck’s half brother) opened a brewery on what is now the 200 block of Franklintown Road back in 1865. In 1876 he built an impressive, three story mansard-roofed home at the brewery. By the 1900s, the brewery had changed hands and was functioning as the Frank Steil Independent Brewing Co. The brewery donated the baptismal font at Zion Church of the City of Baltimore.H. August Beck took over at the death of his father, Mr. August Beck, Sr., the brewery and adorned it with many improvements. The buildings take a 140 front on Garrison Lane (now Franklintown Road) and extend to a ground complex of 500 feet deep. Two large ice houses provided storage space for 12.000 barrels. The grounds also included stables for 10 horses.

In the background of the brewery between shady trees, was a beautiful summer house, a favorite place of pilgrimage for the cities citizens.

When searching for the brewery all we found at that address was an auto repair shop and no existing buildings that could have operated as a brewery. 7-31-2010, however, further investigation indicates that the building is still present. A Sunpaper article found stated that it is pretty much covered in Formstone...and used by a paint company. See attached advertisement...the only remaining appears to be what was the restaurant in the far lower right corner.

August married Christiana (1816-1877). Together they had three children, August (1849-1902), Adolph (1850-1881 and Matilda (1853 to 1862). They are interred at Loudon Park Cemetery.

Beck, Thomas (12-17-1812 to 1-18-1897)

Dukehart, Thos. M. Maryland Brewery.- A sizable brewery that operated from 1856 to 1903 on the southwest corner of South Calverton Road and West Baltimore Street (a block from Eigenbrot’s) It was founded by Thomas Beck in 1856, and later operated as the Dukehart Brewery until 1912. Unlike other breweries in the area that made lager, Dukehart’s turned out ales and porters. The brewery nor any remnants of the buildings exist today.

Thomas was married to Genevieve (Pfister 1836-1891). They are buried at Loudon Park Cemetery.

Berger, Bernhardt

Albion Brewery-Belvedere Avenue near Greenmount Avenue on the old Belvedere Bridge/Pier. It was founded in 1848 by Frederick Ludwig and after his death in 1858 was turned over to Friedrich Weber. In 1887 it had capacity for 9500 barrels. It was housed in a four story, two being underground. There was also a summer garden that sat high enough for patrons to survey the handsome city.

Berger, J.M.

818 South Bond Street: Berger, Mrs. E.- Founded by Mr V. Schwingler in 1858. In 1878 the late Mr JM Berger, the lager beer brewery established and provided with the best facilities. Since, unfortunately, too early deaths of the founder's, Mr. Berger’s widow, Mrs. E. Berger continued the business in a manner worthy of every respect. A photo was not available because all that exists on this block as of 7-4-2010 are residences and a few converted shops.

Brehm, George (5-1832 to 2-25-1904)

George Brehm procured Neisendorfer’s Brewery in 1866 and renamed it Brehm’s Brewery. The brewery was located at modern day Brehms and Bowleys Lane [1888 Rippey's lists the address as Belair Avenue]. At the time, the brewery was the largest employer in Georgetown. The 1880 census shows that George was born in Bavaria. He married Gertrude and they had two daughters and two sons. In 1899 Brehm sold his brewery for $400,000 to the Maryland Brewing Company. Two years later he bought it back for just

$185,000. The 1900 census shows that his step-daughter, Mary Neisendorfer was living with he and his wife. This census also shows that he emigrated in 1864. He died in 1904 and his son Henry took over the business. Henry expanded the brewery in 1907 by building a new brewhouse and storage house. During Prohibition, the brewery survived by producing sodas and resumed full beer production in 1933. In 1935 the Burton Brewing Company purchased the brewery and five years later went out of business. Henry Brehm is shown to the right.

George Brehm is buried at Most Holy Redeemer Cemetery in a family plot.

A sunpaper article on September 30, 1999, written by Jacques Kelly, reports that the 18 acre Edmondson Drive In was owned by the George Brehm family. The Drive In was bulldozed and a Home Depot built in that spot in 1999.

There is a legend that in the basement of Seidel's Bowling Alley (4443 Belair Road) across the street from the Cemetery there exists a blocked tunnel, which during the depression and prohibition, Brehm’s Beer was bootlegged through this tunnel.

Cumberland Brewing Company

Fesenmeier, Michael Sr.(1825 to 3-17-1893)

Fesenmeier, Michael Jr. (1862-1934)

Fesenmeier, Andrew (1866-1925)

The Cumberland Brewing Company was founded in 1890 by James Clark, John Keating, Andrew Fesenmeier, Michael Fesenmeier, W.A. Bucholtz, and Isman L. Eiseman. It was located on North Centre Street. Prior to being used as a brewery, the building was used as a cotton factory. It was known for brands such as Old Export, Gamecock Ale and Carousel Soft Drinks. The Polk Directory lists James Clark as the President, Michael Fesenmeier as 1st VP, Andrew Fesenmeier as 2nd VP, John Keating as Secretary/Treasurer and William Buchholz as General Manager.

The 1890 Directory lists all as brewers, Andrew, George, Michael and Michael Sr.

The Cumberland Brewing Co., used the slogan “Mountain water makes the difference. Good Old Export Beer.” They capitalized on the quality from the mountain water.

Cumberland Brewing was merged into Queen City in 1969. It was the big brewers and union issues that finally hastened the end of the local brewing industry in 1974. Miller, Anheuser-Busch, Coors and others began to mass produce beers for the nation.Old German is still brewed today by the Pittsburgh Brewing Co., the makers of Iron City, which purchased the rights.

The Fesenmeier’s were not new to brewing, with Michael Sr., opening one of the first breweries in the area in 1877 He was born in Württemberg in 1825 and later sold the brewery to his sons, Michael and Andrew. He married Adelheit (Alice) (1826 to 6-4-1911). Besides Michael and Andrew, the couple had George (1855-1939), Theresa (Tess) (1860-1923), John (1863-1920) and Kate (1870-). The family lived on Washington Street. In 1900 and following the death of Michael, George, Andrew and Tess lived on Centre Street and Andrew worked at the brewery.

Michael, the younger married Elizabeth (Barus). She died at the age of 52, on August 30, 1920. They had three children Anna, Adelheit and Leo. Leo became a lawyer in 1916, after his graduation from Mt. St. Mary’s in1913. He also served during WWI as a 1st Lieutenant. Leo died in 1978. His sister, Adelheit, married a Lieutenant William Burns, who died in 1924 leaving a very young widow. The Boh sisters attended Mt. St Josephs. The family is buried at Sts. Peter & Paul Catholic Cemetery in Cumberland. Michael became involved in politics and actually was chosen as a delegate to the 1909 National Democratic Convention. According to a Sunpaper article dated 10.18.1920, pg. 5, Andrew was VP of Cumberland Brewing and the brother of Michael Fesenmeier, general manager of GBS Brewing Company in Baltimore. The 1920 Census has Michael and family living on Bolton Street.

Andrew Fesenmeier remained in Cumberland. The article mentioned above related to an automobile accident in which Andrew struck a motorcyclist. The cyclist died as a result of his injuries.

Many of their employees participated in softball games and all those attending the games received two beers. It was very popular.

The Fesenmeier brothers donated a stained glass window (made in Innsbruck, Austria) to Sts. Peter & Paul. The window, ‘The Nativity of our Lord’.

Engelberth, William F., Sr. (1-1-1866 to 1-8-1947)

William was born on New Year’s Day in Germany. He came to the United States in 1904 and worked admirably at his trade as a brewer. He retired from that trade in 1927.

He was the President of the Independent Citizens Union and a member of the German Singing Socieities during the time they made history here in Baltimore. He was a member of Eichenkranz Singing Society and the Union almost immediately upon his arrival. The Union was organized around 1907 to help Germans coming to this country and to help make them American citizens. Mr. Engelberth was president from 1933 to 1944. He was a member of Zion Church of the City of Baltimore.

He was married to Matilda Engelberth (nee Schuster). Together they had five children, Ms. Henry Scholing, Mrs. John Hutschenreuteer, Mrs. George Mauler, William Engelberth, Jr., and Max Engelberth.

Englehardt, John (11-1850 to 7-19-1902)

John Englehardt was born in Germany in November 1850. He immigrated from Bremen aboard the ship ‘Rhein’ and arrived in New York in August, 1873 and lived in New Jersey. He married Elizabeth and together they had four children, Hazel, Augusta, John and Ferdinand. It is not certain when he moved to Maryland, but in 1900 the family lived on Garrison Lane and Mr. Englehardt’s occupation is listed as a brewer.

Mr. Englehardt was the president of the Brewmasters’ Association of Baltimore. His death was a result of a fall he had in the cellar of the Frank Steil Brewery (Garrison Lane).

He was a member of the Kind David Masonic Lodge, Germania Lodge, No.1, Sons of Hermann and the Improved Order of Hepinsophs.

The service was performed by Rev Richard Stave, pastor of St. John’s German Evangelical Church and he is buried at Loudon Park.

Source: Sunpaper Obituary 7-22-1902 and 1900 census

The German Brewing Company

The brewery was opened in 1901 by Warren C. White, former mayor and businessman in Cumberland. It was the primary competitor to the Cumberland Brewing Company, which opened in 1890. The German Brewing Company was located on Market Street and produced ‘Old German’. One of the early ads for ‘Old German’ suggested drinking beer instead of water, since much of the city’s water supply was not fit to drink. It stated ‘Why not avoid all risk and USE GERMAN BEER! This type of advertising was abandoned in 1917, when drinking German beer wasn’t the patriotic thing to do. When the US entered World War I, the brewery name was changed to ‘The Liberty Brewing Company’ [1917 to 1920]. In fact, the brewery changed their name many times to meet the political views of the country and specifically the area. They changed at the onset of prohibition to ‘Queeno Company’ [1920 to 1933] and produced ‘Queeno’ a alcohol free beer, along with a variety of soft drinks.

Post prohibition, the brewing resumed under the ‘German Brewing Company’ [1933 to 1941]. It was around this time that WWII began and again the name changed. This time they became ‘The Queen City Brewing Company’ [1941 to 1974] and produced ‘The Original Queen City Beer’. At the end of the war, their primary brand returned to ‘Old German’, but the company name remained, ‘The Queen City Brewing Company’. In its prime it produced over 250,000 barrels a year including their famous ‘Old German Beer Premium Lager’.

Brands sold under the Cumberland/ Queen City umbrella: Old German, Old Export, Goldcrest 51, Gamecock Cream Ale, Gamecock Premium Beer, Tudor Beer and Ale, Brown Derby, Old Dutch, Richbrau, Queens Brau, American, Heritage House, Arrow, Fischers Beer and Ale and Kings XX Ale. A few of the labels were created for sales in grocery stores, such as the Brown Derby for Safeway. When their pension plan was terminated on December 20, 1974, they had 160 employees participating. The brewery was demolished in April 1975.

Globe Brewery:

The first Brewery (Southeast Corner Conway and Hanover Streets) was erected in 1748 by Barnitz (Leonard and Samuel) Brothers. John Leonard Barnitz was a native of Falkenstien, Germany, where he learned his craft. The building was situated on the Northeast Corner of Hanover and Conway Streets (later identified as 327 S. Hanover Street-some references also used the S.W. corner of Baltimore and Hanover Sts.). Upon John Leonard's death, his son Elias Daniel took over. The founders named it "Washington Brewery", but only brewed Ale, Porter and Brown Stout. It was in the same location as the magnificent Malthouse of Messrs. Wehr, Hobelmann & Gottlieb. (see profile). It was taken over in 1820 by Peter Gloninger and he operated it for 7 years and sold it to Samuel Lucas. While under the control of Lucas, it became the second largest brewery. Lucas died in 1856. It was then sold to Francis Dandelet (a Frenchman who died in 1878). The name was changed to the Baltimore Brewery. In 1876 it was changed again when John Butterfield with his son-in-law, Frederick Gottlieb, operated the brewery.

Globe Brewery stayed open during prohibition which gave it an 'edge' when prohibition ended. They made 'near beer' called Arrow Special during prohibition. At midnight on April 7, 1933, they served 'real beer' at the Rennert Hotel. Globe also survived both trusts, of which they belonged to both the Maryalnd Brewing Company and the Gottlieb, Bauernschmidt, Straus Co.

In 1963, they stopped brewing in Baltimore and moved their beer making to their Cumberland operations, the Cumberland Brewing Company and in 1965 the building was razed to make room for a parking lot.

All of these names have been associated with the 'Globe' Brewery.

Globe Brewery Name Changes:

Many of the names listed here have been written about on this page. Several of the early brewers above, but this appears to be the progression of the ownership/management of the Globe Brewery:

  • John Leonard Barnitz & Elias Daniel Barnitz (Baltimore & Hanover Strs) 1748-1749

  • Elias Daniel Barnitz (1749-1780)

  • John Hammond & Co. (1780-1794)

  • John G. Barnitz (1794-1795)

  • Thomas Kerr (1796-1809)

  • (Captain) Joseph Leonard (1809-1816)

  • (Captain) Joseph Leonard & Co. (Hanover and Conway & Perry Sts) 1816-1822

  • Peter Gloninger, Washington Brewery (1822-1827)

  • Gloninger & Johnson, Washington Brewery (1827-1829)

  • J. Krouse, Washington Brewery (1829-1831)

  • Graham & Silvey, Washington Brewery (1831-1832)

  • Samuel Lucas, Washington Brewery (1832-1856)

  • Francis Dandelet, Baltimore Brewery (1856-1871)

  • F. Dandelet & Co. (Butterfield & English) (1871-1875)

  • English & Co. (Peter Dahme) (1875-1876)

  • John Butterfield & Co. (Frederick Gottlieb) (1876-1880)

  • Frederick Gottlieb & Herman Hobelmann (1880-1881)

  • Wehr-Hobelmann-Gottlieb & Co. (1881-1888)

  • Wehr-Hobelmann-Gottlieb Brewring & Malting Co., Globe Brewery (1888-1899)

  • Maryland Brewing Co., Globe Brewery (1899-1901)

  • Gottlieb-Bauernschmidt-Straus Brwering Co., Globe Brewing (1901-1920)

  • The Globe Brewing & Mfgr. Co., t/a Globe Bottling & Sales Co., ; Globe Brewery 313/327 S. Hanover Street (1920-1935)

  • The Globe Brewing Co., t/a Hals Brewing Co., (1958-1963)

Guenthler, Max Wilhelm (12-13-1857 to 7-13-1902)

Mr. Guethler was born in Landsberg, Warthe, Bavaria to Christian Ernst and Sofie. His father owned a brewery there and that is where Max learned the trade. He came to the U.S. in 1880 and worked in several breweries in the area. His longest position was with the Von der Horst Brewery, where he worked from 1890 to 1899. It was then he went to Standard Brewery.

He married Margarethe A.P. Rothschu (9-17-1857- to 3-22-1940) in 1881, and together they had three children, Frederick, Elizabeth and Charles Otto. Max was naturalized on the 28th day of September 1889.

Mr. Guethler died from heart disease at the age of 45. He lived at 1766 Gay Street. The day he died he was supposed to attend the Onkel Braesig Society picnic. He sent his children ahead and died of a heart attack.

He was a member of Germania Lodge, Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons; the Onkel Braesig Society, the Turnverein Vorwaerts and the Brewmaster’s Society.

Mr. Guethler and his wife Margaret are buried in Baltimore Cemetery.

Gunther, George (3-29-1846 to 9-1912)

Gunther Brewery (1880-1960)

George Gunther was born in Wirtheim, Germany. He came to this country in 1866 and a very poor young man. He began his career in New York at a brewery as an employee where he remained for three years. In 1869 he became the brewmaster for the Kress Brewery Co. of New York. In 1870 he came to Baltimore as a brewmaster for Geoege Rust at Gehl Brewery. After a year he bought out Christian Gehl (some accounts say he bought him out and some say he assumed or took control), in 1880, and started in the brewery business for himself. Gunther was a brewery in Baltimore that was one of the city’s greatest breweries. It was located and Conkling and Dillon Sts. The Gunther family lived in the neighborhood and operated a tavern from the 1st floor of their home. It is said that George Gunther, Sr., was a very astute business man. George Gunther, Sr. sold his brewery to the Maryland Brewing Company, who was buying up the breweries to make one large moneymaker (known as the brewing trust). It didn't work as planned. Several brewers purchased their breweries back from the MBC. George Gunther Sr., did not have to buy his back because his son, George Gunther, Jr., founded a brewery in 1900, right across the street from his fathers. This did result in legal action from the MBC but it was unsuccessful. It has been reported that George Sr., could not brew under his own name, that he sold that to the trust. There was a 'gray' area in that George, Sr., served as president of the trust, while his son George was establishing the brewery across the street. The courts found in Gunther's favor.

Photo to the right: Karl Bauer lifting keg...long-time employee of Gunther Brewing

George Jr.'s brewery occupied a site east of the Canton Historic District in Baltimore. In the early days, it was called ‘Guenther’. It was made up of 15 buildings, including the brew house itself, which was a five story brick building of Romanesque architecture. Even from a distance are the buildings visable. The architect, Mr. Otto C. Wolf of Philadelphia built the building as a model brewery. The edifices with granite foundations and pressed bricks were the latest building materials of that time. During its’ day it was producing 800,000 barrels per year and employing at least 600 persons. In 1960, Theodore Hamm, founder of the Minnesota based Hamm’s Brewing Company bought Gunther and discontinued the Gunther brand. It was sold three years later (1963) to the F. & M. Schaefer Brewing Company, a New York based brewery. Schaefer preserved both the Hamm and Gunther label until the brewery was closed in 1978. The brewery is listed on the Register of National Historic Places (2002). Mr. George Guenther wanted a clean, healthy stock of beer that will stand the equal of German beers. He was known as a public spirited and honored citizen in Baltimore. He lived in East Baltimore.

Gunther Brewing Company, while outwardly successful, became one of the breweries to be swallowed up by a larger firm, Hamm's Brewing Company, in 1960. Consolidation continued as F.& M. Schaefer Brewing Company bought Hamm's in 1963. Schaefer preserved both Hamm's and Gunther's main brands until the brewery was closed in 1978.

The Gunther's lived in the Jacob Banhard Mansion located at 2102 E. Baltimore Street. The house was built by Jacob Banhard and later acquired by George Gunther. It is in Butcher's Hill.

Gunther, George, cor. Third and O'Donnell. Canton (1888 Rippey Directory)

Hagerstown Brewery

Founded around 1900, this small brewery produced about 125 barrels a day. The manager was W.D. Wilson and the Office Manager was Charles E. Ochs. The cost of the brewery was $150,000.

Helldoerfer, Sebastian-Star Brewery (dod: 1-29-1893)

Helldorfer 1887 Canton

Gottleib Bauer and Frederick Buckler built a brewery on the southwest corner of Fait Avenue and Clinton Street. They sold one year later around 1874 to Sebastian Helldoerfer. He was a well known barrel maker and native Bavarian, born in Bamburg.

In the year 1880, Sebastian Helldoerfer's brewery was completely destroyed. The brewery was rebuilt and outfitted with all of the modern machinery and equipment.. The edifices occupy a full block and were equipped with the most modern facilities. lA tavern restaurant and park were new additions. It became the pride of the area (Highlandtown). At this time a cooling tower was also built, which provided a splendid view of Baltimore...all the way to the Chesapeake Bay. The annual turnover, in 1880 amounted to 16 to 18,000 barrels, stabling for 12 horses, a carriage house and storerooms for 5000 completed barrels on the property. Two sons of Mr. Helldoerfer were active in the business (From the Souvenir book, page 29)

He was married to Regina (Heim 1839-1884). They had five children (see obit below). Initially buried at St. Alphonsus cemetery, which was subsequently sold, his remains were reinterred at Holy Redeemer Cemetery.

From 1888 Rippey Directory: Star Lager Beer Brewery, S. Helldorfer, proprietor, corner Clinton and Lancaster

Sunpaper Obituary: (1/30/1893)

Mr. Sebastion Helldorfer, the brewer, died yesterday at his home, corner of Lancaster and Clinton Streets. Born in Bamberg, Bavaria, he came to America when he was 19. He was employed as a cooper, and several years later, he was engaged in the grocery business, first on Lombard Street, then Belair Road. In 1874, he purchased the old Bauer Brewery, which stood on the site of the present establishment. Destroyed by fire in 1880, he replaced it with the present structure. Mr. Helldorfer married Miss Regina Heim,who died on January 30, 1884, at the age of 45. He was director of the Germania Savings bank, the Canton National Bank, the Denmead Malting Company and a member of the Brewers Exchange.

The funeral took place at his home in Canton, thence to Sacred Heart Church, where a requiem high mass was celebrated by Rev. Anwander. The burial took place at St. Alphonsus Cemetery.

He bequeathed $20,000 to his daughter, Annie Maria and the remainder, equally to his four sons, John Peter, Nicholas, Francis and Henry, who are to continue the business under the name S. Helldorfer & Sons.


This brewery was founded in 1864 by George Wiessner and taken over in 1871 by Lord Hoenervogt, who married the widow of Mr. Wiessner. The business was subsequently taken over by the two sons of Hoenervogt and his first marriage. Their annual turnover in the late 1800s was approximately 8000 barrels. There was also the Hoenervogt Park, which was a popular picnic place for residents in East Baltimore.

Eigenbrot Brewery

Joh, Ferdinand (12-12-1827 to 3-7-1875)

Joh was German born (according the the 1870 census, he emigrated from Baden. He was 43 in 1870) and opened a brewery in the 101 Willard Street, between Hollins Street and Frederick Avenue. Brewing began here in 1873 and ceased with the onset of prohibition. Nearly 100 barrels were rolled out each year. Brands brewed here included Extra Pale Adonis and Stock Lager. The brewery was expanded and renamed after Ferdinand’s daughter’s husband, Henry Eigenbrot. The 1880 Census shows Henry living with Ferdinand’s daughter, Louisa on Wilkens Street in Snake Hollow Baltimore. He was 34 and Louisa was 24. The census shows that Henry was born in Maryland, but both parents were German born. Henry inherited the operations at the death of Ferdinand. Ferdinand married Matilda (1828-1899) and Christiane (1826-1864). His children Emil (1852-1888), Louisa A. (1856-1933).

The Joh Family is buried, as is George Eigenbrot in Loudon Park Cemetery. Eleanor Joh is buried in the Family Plot. Ferdinand Joh had a separate headstone.

Eigenbrot, Henry (12-3-1845 to 4-19-1906) and family are buried at Loudon Park Cemetery.

Obiturary for Henry Eigenbrot

More about the Eigenbrot Brewery:

This description of the Eingebrot Brewery is adapted from the Maryland Inventory of Historic Places.

The majority of the Eigenbrot Brewery Company was built in 1873 by Ferdinand Joh. This group of structures includes those which border South Warwick Street at the foot of Lipps Lane. Central to this early group is a two-story brick building with a gable roof which later served as a “wash and storage” room. This was probably part of the original brewhouse . North of this building and adjacent to it is a one story brick building which later became part of the brewery’s bottling plant. South of it is a three-story hops storage building with a highly decorative brick cornice. In 1892 the brewery began a modernization program which greatly increased its capacity. Key to this was the installation of a refrigeration system to expedite the cooling of the wort.

An elaborate boiler house and compressor house fronting on Willard Street housed the unit. The former has a rooftop lantern now in badly deteriorated condition . In 1896 and 1897 a new brewhouse and cold storage warehouse was added . The brewhouse is a five-story brick structure fronting on Willard Street just north of the office. The warehouse is also five stories but is much higher – each floor having sufficient clearance for the large wooden fermenting vats and storage tanks.

In 1906 the company added three new structures to house its expanded distribution facilities: A two-story brick stable along Hollins Street, a two-story addition to the bottling plant and a new stock house . In 1909 a new refrigeration plant was built be­ tween the 1873 and the new warehouse.

Baltimore was a major center of brewing in the nineteenth century, partly because of its large German population (and appeal to new German immigrants) and also because of its ready supply of grain. By the late nineteenth century there were dozens of small, independently owned breweries. The industry remained a prosperous one until Prohibition crippled it in 1920. Brewery architecture, the only remains of this once thriving industry, with its romantic, Germanic character and elaborate decoration, has given Baltimore some of its most interesting industrial structures. The Eigenbrot brewery in Southwest Baltimore founded in 1873 and remodled in 1896, is an excellent example of brewery architecture.

The Eigenbrot Brewery on Willard Street in West Baltimore was actually founded by Ferdinand Joh in 1873. Joh died in 1876, however, and the brewery was inherited by his daughter Louisa, who married Henry Eigenbrot the same year. Eigenbrot was a thirty year old machinist, the son of a saloon keeper . Though he became the manager, Louisa retained title to the brewery. The brewery was not incredibly successful, but it did enough business to continue, and to support the Eigenbrots in a comfort­ able style. In 1892, however, a reorganization of the brewery came about, and Alexander Straus, the son of malt supplier Levi Straus, became the new manager. (As a result of their role as malt suppliers, the Straus family had a great deal of power in the brewing industry.) A new company was formed, and Alexander Straus became the principal owner along with Louisa Eigenbrot.

The brewery underwent a great deal of expansion and modern­ization under Straus. The plant was enlarged and new equipment, including refrigeration units, were installed, In 1891, the year before Straus took over, the brewery produced about 14,000 barrels of beer, but by 1895 production reached about 45,000. A fire at the brewery in 1896 precipitated the erection of a new and larger brewhouse, and in 1897 a new large storage building was erected as well.

In 1899, the Maryland Brewing Company, a newly formed con­glomerate, purchased the Eigenbrot Brewery along with seventeen other Baltimore breweries. Straus was retained as manager, but Eigenbrot retired at this time. The Maryland Brewing Company was sold to the Gottlieb-Bauernschmidt-Straus Brewing Company in 1901. This sale included the Eigenbrot property. Henry Eigenbrot died in 1906.

A two-story addition to the bottling and storage house, a new stock house and a two-story stable were built in 1906. In 1909, concrete floors, electric lighting and steam heat were installed, and in 1911 a 75 ton ammonia condenser and new vertical single – acting compressors were added. Straus left the brewery in 1912, and Charles Bach became brewmaster and manager. He retained this position until 1920, when Prohibition closed all the breweries . A moving and storage company took over the property at that time.

Monumental Brewing

The brewery was located at East Lombard, Eaton, Haven and Baltimore began in 1898 as the Monarch Brewing Company which ran out of money while being built was completed with the help of investors and renamed. The new Monumental began operations in 1900. It was fully refrigerated (one of the first). Peter Schmidt, the baker was an officer of the corporation and called on John F (Johann Franz) Kresslein (see below) who was working for the Oriental Brewery (see profile this page) to be the brewmaster . William Strauss was named President (former president of National). Prohibition put Monumental out of business.

Kresslein, John F. (1860 to 11-6-1929)

John F. Kresslein was born in Alzenau, Lower Franconia (now part of Bavaria) Germany in 1860, the son of Sebastian Kresslein and Eva Kihn. He emigrated from Germany to the US in 1884 and settled in Baltimore County. He lived at 3701 Foster Avenue in Highlandtown, as did members of his family for almost 100 years. He married Mary A. Thanner (1867 to 3-30-1963), also German born, and together they had 10 children (Frank, Therease, Charles, Anna (1897-1938), William, Francis (1901-1995), Joseph, Amelia (-1937)and John).

John was brewmaster of Monumental Brewery until prohibition.

John was a member of the “Eichenkranz Singing Society". He and Mary and their family were members of Sacred Heart Church. They are buried at Sacred Heart Cemetery.

The photo: The gentleman in the front row is Johann Franz Kresslein, brewmaster at Monumental, the young boy to the left of John is also a Kresslein, Frank, born in 1891. The photo is copyrighted and has been printed with the expressed permission of its owner, Robert J. Kresslein.

National Brewery

The brewery was built in 1872 at the corner of Conkling and O’Donnell Street. They were considered one of the smaller breweries in Baltimore. The brewery was started there by Frederick and Anna Wunder (actually Anna and her first husband, Johann Baier). When they couldn't keep up any longer, the brewery was purchased in 1885 by Joseph and William Straus. They named it the National Brewing Company. National Bohemian beer was originally brewed in 1885. In the 1888 Baltimore Business Directory, it is stated as owned by J.L. Straus & Bro. proprietors and located at O'Donnell near Third in Canton. It, primarily because of its size, it was forced to shut down during prohibition. Many of the larger breweries remained in business by producing 'near beer'. After prohibition National returned with their famous mascot, the one eyed Mr. Boh.

In the 40s National became the first in the US to place six-packs of canned beer on the market.

It became the official beer of Baltimore in the late 60s, when at its peak, as well as the official sponsor of the Baltimore Orioles. The slogan ‘The Land of Pleasant Living’ also reached its peak at this time. It was in 1963 when the brewery began producing Colt 45, which was one of only two malt liquors on the market. The brand of the kicking colt and the horseshoe gained quick recognition.

In the 50’s National held more than 60% of the Baltimore market. Their competitors were Gunther, Globe and Free State and according to Rob Kasper’s Baltimore Beer, all of the 2700 establishments in the Baltimore Metro area that had a beer license carried National beer.

In 1973 the National Brewing Company merged with Carling, a Canadian firm that had a brewery in Halethorpe. It became the 10th largest beer maker. Jerry Hoffberger stayed on with Carling for two years. The brewery closed in 1978.

More than 90% of Natty Boh sales are in Baltimore. Now owned by Pabst Brewing Company and brewed under contract with Miller Coors. It is brewed in Eden, North Carolina. Previously, it was ‘brewed on the shores of the Chesapeake Bay’.

It was acquired by Samuel Hoffberger in 1933. His son, Jerry was made Treasurer and a year later he was named president. He held this position for 28 years. The brewmaster was Carl Kreitler.

Charles Jerold Hoffberger (4-7-1919 to 4-9-1999)

‘Jerry’ Hoffberger was the son of Samuel and Gertrude (nee Miller, daughter of Louis and Sarah, both Russian) Hoffberger. Samuel’s parents were born in Austria. Samuel practiced law in Baltimore. [According to the 1920 Federal Census-Ward 6, District 28]. Charles was born in Baltimore and in 1920, they lived with their in-laws at 2412 E. Baltimore Street. Samuel was a shareholder and Chairman of the National Brewing Company. Charles attended Virginia University and served in the US Army during WWII. He was wounded. After the war, he was appointed president of the brewery when the then president Arthur Deute died. Arthur was the creator of the one eyed 'Mr. Boh'. The Hoffbergers’ took over the brewery near the end of prohibition in 1933.

The Hoffbergers were prominent in Baltimore business owning a coal, ice and oil business. They also had a dairy, bakery and poultry operations. Jerry Hoffberger was by all accounts, a good and honest man to work for.

When St. Louis Browns owner Bill Veeck was all but forced to sell the team, Hoffberger put together a syndicate that bought the team for $2.5 million and moved it to Baltimore as the Orioles. Initially he was a silent partner, but as time passed he acquired more and more stock until he had the controlling interest in 1965. He was the owner of the Orioles throughout their most successful years. He sold the team in 1979 for $12 million.

He was inducted to the Orioles Hall of Fame in 1996 (with Cal Ripken, Sr., and Billy Hunter).

He was a very charitable man. In 1983, Town and Country magazine estimated that he had donated more than $10 million to charitable organizaitons. He and his wife, Alice, had three sons, Peter, Richard and David and one Daugter, Carol.

He spent the retirement years of his life on a farm in Howard County where he bred thoroughbred horses for racing. He died at Sinai Hospital in 1999.

Rossmarck, George (3-21-1815 to 3-2-1887)

Rossmarck, Ferdinand T. (1848 to 5-3-1910)

Rossmarck, John (8-21-1845 to 11-4-1929)

While working on a historical tour for the Zion Church of the City of Baltimore, I came across many of the memorials on

the stained glass windows marked ‘Rossmarck’. Checked with my 'go to brewery guy', Mark Duerr, and sure enough Rossmarck was a brewer and was very active at Zion. There were several Rossmarck’s in the brewing business. The earliest record I could find was in 1846, the first, Pioneer Lager Beer Brewery' erected by George Rossmarck. There was also a George Rossmarck Brewery at Liberty & Saratoga Streets in Baltimore. This brewery existed from 1852 to 1862.

There are some suggestions that there was a feud growing between George Rossmarck and the Strauss brothers when a notice appearing in the Sunpaper on November 11, 1858 has George denouncing any sale of his properties, which apparently were both put up for sale by Struass. The properties were located at 24 North Frederick Street and another at Cross Street (shown as his residence and tavern in the 1880 census, which would indicate no sale took place). In fact Mr. Rossmarck, in his notice, invited all of his friends to partake in a LUNCH at the Frederick Street location on November 18. He indicates the lunch will be gratis by Mr. Bucksbaum, the present tenant and will include Lager Beer made of Denmead’s malt….also gratis.

Prior to the Civil War and due to the lack of refrigeration, tunnels were used to store the kegs. The tunnels were used by several breweries including Rossmarck (also Sieger & Siefel). The tunnels ran throughout Federal Hill and it is said that at least six caves were discovered. The caves were open to explorers and one Sunday several explorers stumpled into several barrels of whiskey. They are uncertain who left it. It was assumed that it was either the Rossmarck brewery or a local beer garden proprietor named Schummelman. (Federal Hill, A Baltimore National Historic District, Norman Rukert, 1980). Click here for Sunpaper article on caves.

The 1870 Census shows that George at the age of 55 was born in Bavaria and was married to Mary (born in Hannover). The children with the couple at that time were Malvena, John, Frederick, Mary and the wife of John, Mary E. The occupation for all of the males was Brewer. Along with the Rossmarck family, there were three other brewers living at the home, Henry Bookman of Hannover, John Keiser of Bavaria and John Frank of Bavaria. By the 1880 census, all of the children had left with the exception of Mary. Just ten years earlier, the 1860 Federal census shows a Joseph (I think the census taker got it incorrect) with Mary and children August, John, Frederick Melvina and Mary. It is also an assumption that Frederick and Ferdinand are one and the same….having same birthdates, etc.

Ferdinand became the primary brewer, being superintendent of the ‘Spring Garden Brewery’ in 1900. The Spring Garden Brewery was located at 1540 Ridgely Street. A notice appearing in the Sunpaper dated June 3, 1899 debunks rumors that Spring Garden Brewery has joined others that joined the recently organized Baltimore Brewers as ‘The Maryland Brewing Company’. The notice went on to state:

To the general public and saloon-keepers in particular, we desire to state positively that the Spring Garden Brewery has not, and will not, have any connection with trusts or combinations, but will continue to operate as the Independent Brewery, relying upon the merit of our product and the popular sense of fair play, to retain the favor of our patrons and extend our trade.

Whenever there is a Trust there is oppression, which eventually asserts itself and cripples trade by removing the opportunity for honest competition. Our intention is to give our patrons a thoroughly honest, absolutely pure Beer, at a minimum cost, and by liberal and courteous treatment, hope to continue to receive their confidence and support. It was signed by The Baltimore Breweries Company (Ltd.) (Spring Garden Brewery); Charles Schutte General Manager and Ferd Rossmarck, Superintendent.

Ferdinand married Clara Virginia Wolfes on February 24, 1874, and moved to Martinsburg, West Virginia. Clara died at the age of 24 on January 5, 1880. Ferdinand had two children by this marriage, Louis George who passed away as an infant in 1875 and Caroline (1875-1881). On the 1880 census Ferdinand the widower was still residing in Berkely County, West Virginia.

Ferdinand married a second time to Bertha (Freckmann). They lived, according to the 1910 Federal Census in Baltimore. She died 2-9-1924. She was buried from their residence at 3929 Edmondson Avenue. Ferdinand and Bertha are buried in Lorraine Cemetery.

In 1905, there was a Ferdinand T. Rossmarck & Son Company, incorporated by Ferdinand with George J. Rossmarck, Bertha Rossmarck and Frederick Keages and Herman Heimiller.

Ferdinand also acted as Secretary for the Boulevard Permanent Building & Loan Association. They were active members of Zion Church which was included in the will of Bertha Rossmarck.

The son John also operated a brewery according to a notice in the Baltimore Sunpaper on January 6, 1868, which announces a ‘Ball’ at the location of the Excelsior Brewery.

John C. Rossmarck died on November 4, 1929 at the age of 84. He was buried from the home of his daughter (Lena Tiemyer) on Garrison Boulevard and is interred at Loudon Park. The Rev. Fritz Evers of Zion provided the service. John was married to Mary and they had three daughters, Laura, Emma and Lina and one son George. Mary died on 2-1-1918.

There was also an indication that there was a brewer by the name of Christian Rossmarck and that he operated a brewery at 1705 Aliceanna Street and 806 South from 1850-1864.

The windows at Zion are in the Adlersaal and Library and include:

  • Ferdinand T. 5-3-1910

  • Ferdinand C. 3-20-1899

  • George Rossmarck 3-2-1877

  • Mary Rossmarck 9-2-1877

Rost, George (4-27-1817 to 12-4-1871) Standard Brewery (a.k.a Rust)

He was born in Bavaria and immigrated to the US in 1851 aboard the ship ‘Martha’ from Bremen. He learned his trade while in Germany and opened the brewery which was located between Gay Street and the 2200 block of North Avenue. It opened in 1853. One of his early brewmasters was John F. Wiessner, who had just arrived in this country and would later open Wiessner’s brewery (see bio this page). He was one of the first to build a beer garden next to the brewery and called it George Rost’s Meadow, where patrons could enjoy his beer and sing good old German beer drinking songs. Rost dug tunnels beneath the streets of Baltimore where he could store his lager to ferment.

He is buried at Baltimore Cemetery.

Source: 1870 Census (Baltimore Ward 7)-53 years old and listed as a beer brewer born in Bavaria. He is listed with his wife Sophia and children John (27), Frederick (17), George (5) and Rosa (4). Wood’s Baltimore City Directory lists the brewery at Belair Av near Baltimore Cemetery.

Schlaffer, Franz & Sons, Oriental Brewery

Franz Schlaffer (8-21-1830 to 1906)

Anna Schlaffer (1830 to 1904)

The brewery was founded in 1872 by Franz Schlaffer and stood on Belair Road until it moved to Canton due to the poor

water on Belair Road, where he ran the business from 1871 to 1881. It moved to Canton, Third and Lancaster Street, on Brewer's Hill, where the Oriental Brewery name came about. His sons, Charles, John, Andrew and Georg Schlaffer, worked with their father in two different breweries. It was a modern brewery with a large ice house and stalls for 12 horses. The yearly output in 1887 was 10,000 barrels. An old ad in a souvenir book indicates that it is an ‘Oriental’ Brewery. Franz was married to Anna. Both Franz and Anna were born in Augsburg, Bavaria. Franz studied the brewing business in Germany and immigrated to the United States in 1850 arriving in Baltimore. The family is buried at Most Holy Redeemer Cemetery.

[Additional information provided by the gggrandson of Franz Schlaffer, John G. Schlaffer]

Seeger, Jacob (10-26-1809 to )-Crystal Brewery

Crystal Brewery-Seeger

Jacob Seeger was born in Reutlingen, Germany. His father was a silver-plater. Jacob received his education in his native town and pursued the same vocation as his father. He left Germany and came to Baltimore in 1831. He came with no funds and upon arrival and worked as an apprentice, when after three years, he established himself as a silver-plater. The business was profitable and in 1854 he became attracted to the brewery business and purchased a property on Frederick Road and entered into the brewing business. He retained his interest in the silver-plating business which he established on German Street (now Redwood Street).

His beer became so popular that in 1866 he sold his interest in the silver-plating business to devote full time to the brewery. Mr. Seeger was succeeded by his son, Paul August Seeger. The brewery: Seeger’s, Jacob Estate, Crystal Brewery was located on Pratt Street between Smallwood and South Bentalou Streets in 1854. The shop sat where what was then referred to as ‘Snake Hollow’. The brewery included a beer garden and flowerbeds behind a white picket fence at the corner of West Pratt Street and Frederick Avenue. Mr. Seeger was confined to his home on 311 West Fayette Street from 1876 until his death. He was a member of St. John’s Lutheran Church.

Solomon Straus Malster

Established in 1866 and still stands today. The old building has been completely renovated and the new owners have built a new building next to it. The buildings are condominiums with the history preserved.

The Canal Street Malt House takes its name from its previous incarnation. Built in 1866 to store malt for the city's growing brewing industry, the building features red brick walls and colossal paned windows, which today reflect Baltimore’s industrial past. To preserve the building’s historic flavor, architectural features including exposed concrete columns and eighteen to twenty foot ceilings contribute to the post industrial residential feel of the residences.

Frank Steil Brewing Company

Frank Steil (11-25-1865 to 10-7-1923)

Frank was born in Kirschberg on the Rhein, Germany and emigrated to the US in 1875 with his parents and brother Frederick (1863 to 3-13-1918). They attended Zion German Lutheran Church in Baltimore. They were active members of the church. He met his wife, Conradina Caroline Bertha Walter (7-27-1865 to 1943) through the church.

Mr. Steil was very industrious and grew his brewery into one of the most respected in the state. The brewery was built in 1865 by Mr. August Beck. The property was large and contained stables, a machine hall, a home and a tavern. It had the largest cellars of any brewery in the state. It was located on Franklintown (then Garrison) Road opposite Pratt Street. At the death of Mr. Beck, Sr., the brewery continued under August Beck, Jr., until it was sold on June 3, 1899 to John Marr. Mr. Marr was president of the Standard Brewing Company on Gay Street. Mr. Marr made some major improvements and called the brewery the ‘Independent’ Brewery. This is due to the timing, which was at a point where many of the larger breweries in the area were being consolidated or merged (Maryland Brewing Company). The Independent Brewery didn’t last long and on December 1, 1900, it was organized as the Frank Stiel Brewing Company. The mortgage on the new company was held by Frederick Feldner, a lawyer and friend to Steil. Feldner and his wife as well as their daughter and son-in-law, Fritz Mergenthaler (see Ottmar Mergenthaler-Printing), died in an automobile accident at Cape May in 1910.

Steil built the brewery to one of the largest and most successful in Baltimore. His brother Frederick became treasurer and eventually manager, serving until his death.

Steil lived at the house built on the grounds. They also operated a restaurant on the grounds, which is where his wife reported daily.

In 1905 he bought out the Spring Garden Brewery located on Ridgely near Paca Street.

The first brewmaster at Steil was John Engelhardt, born in Germany as were many of the subsequent brewmasters. There appeared to be many associated with the brewery which could have changed slightly the beer. The Baltimore people were pleased, however, with the output during the pre-prohibition days.

It would appear that the brewery remained in business until prohibition. A special session in the Maryland General Assembly in 1937 acknowledges the deed from the Frank Steil Brewing Company to the Trustees of the Payson Street Methodist church in the City of Baltimore. The property was located at the northwest corner of Frederick Avenue and Payson Street. The deed was dated August 27, 1920.

Frank and Bertha had one daughter, Matilda (2-1888). The family in 1900 lived at 1832 N. Broadway.

The brewery in its glory and the brewery today. It is a paint company.

Frank Steil died on October 7, 1923 of heart disease. He is buried at Lorraine Park. The baptismal font at Zion Church of the City of Baltimore bears his name and acknowledgement for the donation. He was also active in several singing societies including the German Männechor.

The Frank Steil Brewing Company was established December 1,1900, the officers of the company being Frank Steil, President; Fred Steil, Vice President; Henry Bucksbaum, Secretary. This celebrated brewery was located at 44-46 Garrison Lane in Baltimore, where it was brewed the surpassing 'Deutsches Beer," "XXX Porter" and "Pale Beer". The product of the brewery was rightly called 'Ye Old Steil Beer’ because that is exactly what it was; the kind of beer that tastes like beer ought to taste, and is as pure as beer ought to be. The Steil Brewery was one of the very up-to-date beer making plants in the country, thoroughly sanitary and equipped with the latest machinery. It has been said that after you once drink "Ye Old Steil Beer" all the 'New style beers’ become old style to your palate-it is just that superior to others in purity and flavor....source: Old Advertisement.

**Special thanks to Mark Duerr for the mounds of information provided on Steil Brewing and the Steil family.

J.H. Vonderhorst & Son-Eagle Brewery (1825 to 7-4-1894)

J.H. Vonderhorst was born in Gehre, Germany, a small village in Hanover in 1825. He emigrated from Germany at the age of 21, penniless and not knowing a word of English. He got a job as a porter in a grocery store on Fayette and Howard Streets. He ended up owning the grocery store.

He entered a partnership with a man named Ruprecht and bought the Richardson Oil cloth Mill and turned it into the Eagle Brewery (1866-1905). Eagle was one of the breweries that entered the conglomerate Gottlieb-Bauernschmidt-Straus Company in 1905. They closed the Eagle Brewery.

He became a wealthy man and was a smart businessman.

More about Eagle Brewery. The Eagle Brewery was located on Belair Avenue (900 block of Gay Street). It was founded by J.H. Vonderhorst in 1866. The brewery building was built in 1880 and was five stories high. The malt house produces 100,000 bushels yearly. The yearly product output was 40,000 barrels. The use of three large steel boilers and two refrigeration units were utilized. They employed 32 persons and had stables with 36 horses. Mr. Vonderhorst’s son, Henry was admitted to the firm in 1880 and the name was changed to J.H. Vonderhorst & Son.

The Vonderhorst's had five children, one daughter and four sons.

According to a Sunpaper article written in 1951, Mr. Vonderhorst always kept an Angora goat in the stables of his brewery, claiming that the goat had a beneficial effect on the health of his horses. A street named after him, Vonderhorst Lane, a one block lane that ran diagonally south from Sinclair Lane to the west side of Belair Road.

According to census records (1880) John was living at the Village of St. Domingo with wife Johanna, son Henry and his wife Emma and their three granddaughters, Lena, Louisa and Charlotte.

John H. Von der Horst died on July 4, 1894 at the age of 69. Henry took over the brewery at his father's death.

J.H. Vonderhorst and his family are buried in the Vonderhorst Mausoleum at Baltimore Cemetery.

Wehr, Hobelmann & Gottlieb (Malt House) Corner of Hanover and Conway Sts. (Globe)

(Now: Camden Yards)

Began in 1880 when Gottlieb joined with Herman Hobelman & Frederick Wehr. They initially made barley and rye malt. A new plant was built in 1881. From 1881-1888, the produced malt not beer. They went back into the brewing buisness in 1888 and renamed the Company the Globe Brewing Company. In 1899 Globe joined with about 15 other breweries and formed the Maryland Brewing Company. The Maryland Brewing Company was succeeded in 1901 by Gottlieb-Bauernschmidt-Straus. In 1920, they went back to the Globe Brewing Company name.

From 1888 Rippey Directory

Wehr. Hobelmann & Gottlieb, northeast corner Hanover and Conway [45-44]

Lower left photo courtesy Ron

Hermann Henry Hoblemann (9-25-1835 to )

Mr. Hoblemann was President and Treasurer of the Wehr-Hoblemann- Gottlieb Brewing and Malting Company, of Baltimore. He was born at Osnabruck, Hanover, Germany, the son of the John Henry and Anna Regina (Schroeder) Hoblemann, both natives of Hanover. The elder Hoblemann was a miller at Osnabruck, and the descendant of a number of generations, the senior male of each of which pursued the same vocation at the same place. Hermann H. Hoblemann received some years" schooling at the Osnabruck Gymnasium and then, after taking a commercial course, entered his father's business. At the age of eighteen he came to the United States and settled down in Baltimore, where he found employment with Charles D. Slingluff & Son, wholesale grocers and commission merchants. He remained in their employ for six years as a shipping clerk. In 1860 he established his own retail grocery business at 72 Conway Street. Here he stayed for five years and then entered the wholesale liquor business with a facility at 59 S. Charles Street. He kept this until May 1886, when he took an eighteen month hiatus to visit Germany. Upon his return to Baltimore, he devoted all of his time exclusively to the malting business of Wehr, Hoblemann & Gottlieb, with which firm he became associated in 1880.

A brewing business was added in 1888 corporately named, ‘Wehr-Hoblemann-Gottlieb Brewing and Malting Company’ (ultimately Globe Brewing). Mr. Hoblemann was the president and treasurer. The brewing plant had a capacity of 120,000 barrels per annum : its output the first year was 32,000 barrels, and last in 1896 56,000 barrels.

Mr. Hoblemann's provided services to many organizations, among them, he was on the Board of the German Fire Insurance Company and the German Bank of Baltimore.

He was married in 1862 to Mary Mormann, the daughter of another Hanover, Germany native, who settled in Baltimore. She died in 1885, leaving five children: Mary (Thies); Joanna (Hoblemann); Lisette (Hennighausen); Maggie (Koenig) and Frederick. He married again in 1887 to Alma Fuerste, also the daughter of a Hanover native. There was one child born to this marriage, Hermann A. Hoblemann. The family lived at 19 E. Pratt Street and were members of Zion Lutheran Church.

Phoenix Brewery - Werner, Henry

Phoenix Brewery, formerly John Nagengast & Bros., was located in the northwestern part of the city on Pennsylvania Avenue, No. 1528-1534. Mosher Street, all there is residential, primarily apartments. The brewery was taken over in 1879 by Mr. Henry Werner and became over the years a profitable establishment. The annual turnover of the brewery amounted to approximately 18 000 barrels. There were stables for 20 horses.

(From souvenir book, page 31)

On our investigation, there was nothing remaining of a brewery at this location.

Wiessner Brewery

Wiessner, John Frederick (12-14-1831 to 1-1-1897)

Wiessner was born in Uehlfeld, Germany in 1831 and was the son of a brewer. He came to the U.S. in 1853 and served as brewmaster for the George Rost Brewery (later the Standard Brewery). He dreamed of owning a brewery of his own, but had little money. He returned to Bavaria in 1862 and returned to the

U.S. the following year with enough money to open his brewery. The original brewery was founded in 1863 and was small. It was located at First (Highland) and Eastern Avenues and was called the George F. Weissner's Fort Marshall Brewery. The output approximately 1500 barrels of lager beer per year. According to Baltimore: It’s Past and Present-A Souvenir program for the U.S. Brewer’s Assn in 1887, an ad for Wiessner’s said they produced 40,000 bottles). He leased a little over 2 acres. He was able to build the brewery on funds extended by Levi and Henry Straus. He built a three story brewery on this site in this predominantly German neighborhood. From the early photos there was a boiler room with a stack, which would mean that he used steam to cook the mash, unlike the other breweries at the time, which were still using the copper cookers. The early brewery had nine employees. The site itself had a beer garden, saloon and picnic ground. It was later extended to include a bowling alley, dancing pavilion and merry-go-round. The site also had an ice house, stables and storage building. The brewery featured a giant cast pewter statue of Gambrinus, the patron of beer (now at the Maryland Historical Society-2003). At the time there were approximately twenty one other brewers operating in Baltimore and the surrounding areas. It was located down the road from the George Rost Brewery, where he had worked upon his arrival in the U.S. The local community was named Highland Town and when annexed by Baltimore City in 1918, renamed Highlandtown. Prior to a meeting held at Weissner's in 1870, the area was known as Snake Hill.

He was the first and only brewmaster. He married Sarah Rupprecht on July 5, 1858. His son John, Jr. left at the age of 15 to learn brewing from the Ringler Brewery in New York. He returned at the age of 17, a Master Brewer and was taken into partnership with his father in 1882. At that time, the output was approximately 20,000 barrels per year. In 1885 John Neumeister came from Bavaria to Baltimore to become the Weissner family brewmaster. The first refrigeration was installed at the brewery in 1885. By 1886/87, the business had outgrown their facility and an extensive enlargement was started. A new five story brewery was build with three wooden towers was built at Belair (now Gay). At that time another competitor, George Bauernschmdit began building his new facility, as was George Rost (Standard Brewery). After the new brewery began production, John F., and John F., Jr., took the other sons, Henry and George into the business. John F. operated it for 34 years until his death.

At the time of his death John F., Jr., was named president. Building continued on the site because the Weissner family believed in the custom of housing his workers, which were mostly German immigrants. In 1897, the brewery was incorporated as the John F. Weissner & Sons Brewing Company. By 1899, the brewery was again faced with the need for expansion, largely because the company began bottling their own products in 1886.

Plans for expansion were announced on March 5, 1899 in the Sunday Herald. A four story warehouse was built of brick with a capacity of 100,000 barrels. The brewery was built in Gothic-German design. The property contained the highest tower which held 10,000 lbs. of grain. The first Schuetzen Club was started here.

It was at this time that a competitor, the Maryland Brewing Company, was attempting to buy all the breweries in the area. Weissner did not sell to the Maryland Brewering Company or the other large trust, the Gottlieb, Bauernschmidt, Straus trust, and continued operating, which turned out to be a good decision. By 1901, the brewery had increased its capacity to 150,000 barrels. John F., Jr. died on September 22, 1906 and his brother George succeeded him as President. The Weissner Family were very generous and it is said that John, who was chief of the volunteer fire company, left his home at Eastern and Highland Avenue in his will, to be used as an orphanage. George and Henry continued the family business and the production reached 110,000 barrels by 1919. This was the year before prohibition and the year they were forced to close their doors. They made attempts at ‘near beer’ and attempts to reopen, but did not succeed. The property was sold in 1931 to the American Brewery Company. The malt company made a malt syrup that brewers could use. After prohibition, the American Malt Company brewed 'American Pilsener', an award winning pils. It was later sold to the Allegany Brewery.

The brewery was abandoned in 1973 and sat vacant for some time. It is now been totally renovated (by Humana) and is used for offices. Many of the original fixtures, however, remain.

Brewers (1850 Merc. Directory)

Brewers and Distillers.

Coughlan William, cor. E. Av. and Exeter.

Hazlehurst & Phalen, (distillers) Holliday near Bath.

Herman F., 151 Franklin.

Hofman Conrad, 53 Pennsylvania Avenue.

Krien J., (distiller) 81 Harrison.

Medtart, Jacob C., 312 Saratoga.

Schlott C., (distiller) 346 Saratoga.

Wanzger ----, 129 Camden.

Wantz H., (distiller) 140 Franklin.

White Henry, (distiller) Holliday near Centre

The 13 years of Prohibition left fewer than half of the pre-Prohibition breweries to reopen. More and more 'out of state' breweries were shipping beer to Maryland.

Surviving breweries in the 1940s included Arrow, Free State, Gunther, American, Weissner’s and National.

Local beer gardens: Muth’s Riverview, Carlin’s Park, Seeger’s, Beck’s, Prospect Park.

[1] The Panic of 1893 was a serious economic depression in the United States that began in 1893. Similar to the Panic of 1873, this panic was caused by railroad overbuilding and shaky railroad financing which set off a series of bank failures. Compounding market overbuilding and a railroad bubble was a run on the gold supply and a policy of using both gold and silver metals as a peg for the US Dollar value.